Fortnight 03: 25 January to 07 February 2014

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 18 February 2014

Fortnight 03: 25 January to 07 February 2014

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Measles

There have been 36 cases of measles reported this reporting period from NT (16), Vic (7), NSW (4), WA (3), Qld (3), SA (2) and ACT (1). The median age is 21, the age range is from 0-64.

Of the 82 cases notified YTD:

  • 37 cases were either imported from overseas or were import-related. 25 of these cases were related to the Philippines;
  • 9 have been linked to the multijurisdictional outbreak associated with an imported case from the Philippines who attended a dance competition in Sydney in early December; and
  • Information about how they acquired their infection has not been established or not reported at the time of analysis for the remaining 36 cases.

Salmonellosis

Between 25 January and 7 February 2014, there were 729 notified cases of salmonellosis.

Over the past quarter there have been 3,989 notifications, which is 1.3 times the quarterly rolling five year mean for the same period.

As foods of animal origin may be contaminated with Salmonella, authorities highlight the importance of not eating raw eggs, poultry, or meat. It is also important that these foods are handled in a way to avoid cross-contamination of other foods.

Shigellosis

Between 25 January and 7 February 2014, there were 48 notified cases of shigellosis.

Over the past quarter there have been 253 notifications, which is 1.6 times the quarterly rolling five year mean for the same period.

Shigella spreads easily from person to person by the faecal-oral route. Ingestion of only a small number of organisms is sufficient to result in infection. Certain types of sexual activity, such as oral-anal sex, facilitate transmission of Shigella from person to person. People who have shigellosis should not have sex where there is any contact with the anus, to avoid transmitting Shigella to the mouth. Shigellosis can also be acquired from ingestion of food contaminated by poor hand hygiene or by flies that have been in contact with human waste.

Good hygiene is essential to prevent the further spread of Shigella. Spread of Shigella can be prevented by:

  • thorough washing of hands with soap and water for at least 10 seconds:
    • after going to the toilet
    • after changing nappies
    • after any possible exposures to faecal material
    • before handling food or caring for other people
    • washing vegetables and fruit that are eaten raw

Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 10 November 2013 to 7 February 2014.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 7 February 2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 8 February 2013 to 7 February 2014.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 7 February 2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.

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Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.


Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 25/01/2014 to 07/02/2014

Footnotes:

Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NDP = No Data Provided, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 10/11/2013 to 07/02/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 10/11/2012 to 07/02/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 10/11/2011 to 07/02/2012
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 10/11/2010 to 07/02/2011
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 10/11/2009 to 07/02/2010
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 10/11/2008 to 07/02/2009
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 08/02/2013 to 07/02/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 09/02/2012 to 07/02/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 08/02/2011 to 07/02/2012
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 08/02/2010 to 07/02/2011
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 08/02/2009 to 07/02/2010
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 09/02/2008 to 07/02/2009
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2013 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by;
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 6 4 7 17 34 51.4 0.7 - 170 224.8 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 4 92 0 38 0 5 37 20 196 240 241 579 1,526 1,508.8 1.0 - 6,941 6,705.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 2 0 0 1 0 6 3 12 18 16 41 109 99.0 1.1 - 407 406.4 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 7 113 0 93 2 5 58 24 302 375 375 904 2,351 2,382.2 1.0 - 10,271 10,485.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 16 6.0 2.7 7.2 61 35.6 1.7 14.7
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 4 0.6 6.7 1.6
Campylobacteriosis 13 NN 10 197 43 36 337 99 735 800 559 2,136 4,764 4,477.2 1.1 - 15,158 16,287.4 0.9 -
Cryptosporidiosis 4 26 5 43 12 0 22 12 124 132 192 363 740 587.4 1.3 - 3,808 2,627.2 1.4 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 6 10 4.6 2.2 - 18 17.4 1.0 -
Hepatitis A 0 5 0 5 0 0 5 0 15 9 13 29 53 65.0 0.8 - 198 280.4 0.7 -
Hepatitis E 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 4 3 11 9.0 1.2 - 31 38.2 0.8 -
Listeriosis 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 5 6 16 22.0 0.7 - 68 78.4 0.9 -
STEC, VTEC 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 7 12 7 26 45 38.2 1.2 - 185 102.6 1.8 32.1
Salmonellosis 4 240 14 224 44 7 150 46 729 772 678 2,003 3,989 3,168.4 1.3 34.8 13,123 10,719.2 1.2 -
Shigellosis 1 19 3 14 1 0 7 3 48 60 17 151 253 160.4 1.6 27.7 654 600.0 1.1 -
Typhoid Fever 0 4 0 1 1 0 4 0 10 8 14 23 44 33.4 1.3 - 140 119.2 1.2 -
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 3 4.6 0.7 -
HPAIH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 1.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 43 807 37 740 8 65 572 427 2,699 3,431 3,264 8,069 19,537 17,238.4 1.1 - 82,439 72,449.0 1.1 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 1.0 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 11 186 26 102 9 3 94 86 517 742 648 1,675 3,752 2,657.6 1.4 - 15,420 10,494.8 1.5 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 0.0 - 6 4.2 1.4 -
Syphilis < 2 years 0 3 0 14 0 0 10 1 28 56 70 119 348 316.8 1.1 - 1,699 1,325.6 1.3 70.3
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 2 4 3 6 0 0 17 0 32 53 56 121 329 292.8 1.1 4.2 1,680 1,349.6 1.2 230.1
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.0 0.0 - 4 0.8 5.0 -
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 4 3.8 1.1 - 22 19.0 1.2 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 7 123 51 182 58 5 78 57 561 653 329 1,702 4,687 2,164.8 2.2 355.2 29,000 30,916.2 0.9 -
Measles 1 4 16 3 2 0 7 3 36 29 1 82 115 24.2 4.8 57.2 229 125.4 1.8 -
Mumps 0 3 0 3 0 1 0 0 7 9 11 18 43 39.6 1.1 - 207 173.0 1.2 -
Pertussis 2 63 4 84 11 7 126 62 359 445 631 1,095 2,782 8,824.8 0.3 - 11,700 28,593.8 0.4 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 0 7 1 2 3 0 7 5 25 31 39 82 280 286.6 1.0 - 1,548 1,711.2 0.9 -
Poliomyelitis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 8 7.6 1.1 - 30 39.4 0.8 -
Rubella Congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 2 0.4 5.0 0.5
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1.6 0.0 - 2 4.2 0.5 -
Varicella zoster (Chickenpox)+ 0 NN 7 0 5 0 19 7 38 82 55 178 573 508.6 1.1 - 2,051 1,897.0 1.1 -
Varicella zoster (Shingles)+ 1 NN 6 2 36 0 37 35 117 171 180 447 1,169 913.2 1.3 - 4,911 3,375.8 1.5 -
Varicella zoster (Unspecified)+ 5 NN 0 220 42 16 108 59 450 473 339 1,278 2,804 1,860.6 1.5 342.8 10,289 7,018.0 1.5 386.8
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC) 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 5 7 3.2 2.2 - 23 12.4 1.9 0.6
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 4 2 61 0 0 0 3 70 73 170 177 415 496.2 0.8 - 4,071 1,757.4 2.3 1,801.2
Dengue virus infection 1 12 6 25 3 0 11 25 83 108 81 239 410 370.0 1.1 - 1,843 1,131.8 1.6 159.9
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 4 0.4 10.0 2.5
Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0.2 10.0 0.9 3 1.6 1.9 -
Malaria 1 7 1 4 0 0 7 3 23 9 33 40 96 114.4 0.8 - 396 445.4 0.9 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 1 4.6 0.2 -
Ross River virus infection 0 13 21 44 1 1 10 87 177 204 194 530 1,103 1,028.8 1.1 - 4,348 5,009.0 0.9 -
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 3 8 8.4 1.0 - 22 32.4 0.7 -
Leptospirosis 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 4 2 1 9 17 30.0 0.6 - 101 142.2 0.7 -
Lyssavirus (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 12 21.4 0.6 - 43 79.8 0.5 -
Q fever 0 5 0 13 0 0 2 0 20 22 22 65 120 83.2 1.4 13.2 490 344.2 1.4 104.8
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 1.0 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 2 0 1 0 0 2 7 12 14 16 35 99 84.0 1.2 - 500 324.4 1.5 79.8
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 2.0 1.5 1.0 14 8.4 1.7 0.8
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 3 2 3 8 28 54.2 0.5 - 145 247.8 0.6 -
Tuberculosis 0 5 1 16 0 0 5 3 30 44 49 122 305 343.0 0.9 - 1,240 1,321.4 0.9 -
Totals 107 1,758 214 2,149 284 151 1,742 1,078 7,483 9,101 8,328 22,398 53,018        225,723       

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