Fortnight 06: 08 March to 21 March 2014

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 08 April 2014

Fortnight 06: 08 March to 21 March 2014

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Measles

There have been 16 cases of measles reported this reporting period from NSW (11), Qld (2), and one each from NT, Vic and WA. The median age is 21, the age range is 0-64.

Of the 166 cases notified YTD:

  • Around 70% of cases were either imported from overseas or were import-related, with the majority related to the Philippines;
  • Some of the import-related cases (n=10) have been linked to a multijurisdictional outbreak associated with an imported case from the Philippines who attended a dance competition in Sydney in early December 2013; and
  • Of the remaining 30% of cases, a link to an imported case has either not been established or is still under investigation.

Varicella zoster infection (chickenpox, shingles and unspecified)

Since 2009, notifications of Varicella zoster virus (VSV) infection (chickenpox, shingles and unspecified) have steadily increased across jurisdictions where varicella zoster is notifiable. This increase is most likely due to increased awareness of the requirement to notify, and laboratory testing rates, by health care practitioners.

The ability to categorise a VSV infection as either chickenpox or shingles requires clinical evidence as a minimum. Due to the absence of clinical information for the majority of cases, nationally the majority of VSV infections are therefore reported as unspecified infections.

An analysis of South Australian VSV infections, where the majority of cases are followed up to establish the clinical evidence, highlights that since 2009 notifications of chickenpox have remained relatively stable, whereas notifications of shingles have increased over this period.

Arbovirus infection (NEC)

Between 8 and 21 March 2014, there were two notifications of arbovirus NEC, compared with two during the previous period, and one during the same period of last year. During the past 90 days, there were eight notifications, a ratio of 2.5 compared with the quarterly rolling mean of 3.2 notifications.

One of these two notifications was a Zika virus infection acquired in the Cook Islands, where an outbreak is occurring, with 197 cases (35 of them laboratory confirmed) as of 16 March 2014. No information on the place of acquisition or the specific flavivirus involved was available for the other notification.


Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 22 December 2013 to 21 March 2014.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 21 March 2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 22 March 2013 to 21 March 2014.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 21 March 2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.

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Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.


Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 08/03/2014 to 21/03/2014

Footnotes:

Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NDP = No Data Provided, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 22/12/2013 to 21/03/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 22/12/2012 to 21/03/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 23/12/2011 to 21/03/2012
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 22/12/2010 to 21/03/2011
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 22/12/2009 to 21/03/2010
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 22/12/2008 to 21/03/2009
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 22/03/2013 to 21/03/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 22/03/2012 to 21/03/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 23/03/2011 to 21/03/2012
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 22/03/2010 to 21/03/2011
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 22/03/2009 to 21/03/2010
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 22/03/2008 to 21/03/2009
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2014 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by;
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 9 7 41 42 54.2 0.8 - 169 225.0 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 0 107 3 47 15 2 56 26 256 296 256 1,443 1,536 1,614.2 1.0 - 6,984 6,713.0 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 1 0 0 0 0 6 4 11 17 16 101 106 101.8 1.0 - 410 410.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 4 107 5 122 13 11 57 41 360 407 396 2,135 2,290 2,469.0 0.9 - 10,250 10,464.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 7 9 7.2 1.3 - 55 36.6 1.5 10.0
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 4 0.6 6.7 1.6
Campylobacteriosis 13 NN 19 217 60 33 250 86 678 711 562 4,322 4,719 4,335.4 1.1 - 15,695 16,198.4 1.0 -
Cryptosporidiosis 7 25 10 41 6 1 18 27 135 113 334 764 822 1,175.2 0.7 - 3,297 2,737.6 1.2 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 9 10 4.4 2.3 2.3 17 17.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis A 0 5 0 0 0 0 4 1 10 24 7 81 86 65.0 1.3 - 207 282.6 0.7 -
Hepatitis E 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 1 8 11 9.8 1.1 - 33 37.4 0.9 -
Listeriosis 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 2 3 18 21 27.6 0.8 - 67 79.6 0.8 -
STEC, VTEC 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 6 6 37 40 37.4 1.1 - 175 105.0 1.7 24.4
Salmonellosis 7 231 11 260 33 16 145 52 755 947 612 4,617 4,926 3,872.0 1.3 28.9 13,757 10,851.6 1.3 -
Shigellosis 1 16 5 10 1 0 3 6 42 43 16 287 300 165.2 1.8 74.9 688 590.2 1.2 -
Typhoid Fever 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 9 8 44 47 48.0 1.0 - 131 121.0 1.1 -
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 3 4.6 0.7 -
HPAIH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 1.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 35 838 28 832 198 72 648 537 3,188 3,672 3,132 19,323 20,525 18,385.2 1.1 - 83,449 73,110.2 1.1 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0.2 5.0 - 1 1.0 1.0 -
Gonococcal infection 5 168 24 107 23 3 113 97 540 627 546 3,674 3,986 2,814.2 1.4 - 15,597 10,671.8 1.5 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1.6 0.6 - 6 4.4 1.4 -
Syphilis < 2 years 0 2 1 17 1 0 18 3 42 46 83 345 382 344.4 1.1 - 1,714 1,337.8 1.3 28.7
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 1 1 1 10 2 1 32 3 51 73 79 347 370 326.8 1.1 - 1,689 1,362.0 1.2 255.9
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 2 0.8 2.5 -
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 3 3.4 0.9 - 21 18.8 1.1 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 5 82 13 235 76 7 70 64 552 549 405 3,452 3,745 2,086.0 1.8 - 29,638 31,058.8 1.0 -
Measles 0 11 1 2 0 0 1 1 16 34 1 166 172 33.8 5.1 78.3 308 121.8 2.5 78.1
Mumps 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 15 16 57 59 43.0 1.4 - 204 170.2 1.2 -
Pertussis 4 60 2 55 12 6 127 51 317 377 425 2,232 2,458 7,539.4 0.3 - 11,209 28,799.4 0.4 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 1 10 0 5 0 0 14 11 41 38 29 194 225 236.8 1.0 - 1,548 1,715.0 0.9 -
Poliomyelitis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 6 6 9.4 0.6 - 32 39.6 0.8 -
Rubella Congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 2 0.2 10.0 0.9
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0.0 - 2 4.2 0.5 -
Varicella zoster (Chickenpox)+ 0 NN 4 4 13 0 27 11 59 52 47 382 465 375.6 1.2 - 2,088 1,906.2 1.1 -
Varicella zoster (Shingles)+ 1 NN 8 0 40 5 43 38 135 221 194 1,115 1,230 942.8 1.3 - 5,001 3,446.0 1.5 -
Varicella zoster (Unspecified)+ 4 NN 0 234 42 9 137 75 501 481 365 2,670 2,887 1,858.0 1.6 507.8 10,577 7,144.0 1.5 764.3
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC) 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 8 8 3.2 2.5 0.5 25 11.8 2.1 1.6
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 11 2 22 0 0 0 4 39 44 298 320 350 670.6 0.5 - 3,429 1,827.4 1.9 753.6
Dengue virus infection 0 17 4 22 0 3 0 11 57 80 74 559 589 529.6 1.1 - 1,952 1,163.6 1.7 158.3
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 4 0.4 10.0 2.5
Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0.6 3.3 0.3 3 1.4 2.1 -
Malaria 0 3 0 5 1 0 0 1 10 11 10 80 86 112.6 0.8 - 377 443.6 0.8 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 1 4.6 0.2 -
Ross River virus infection 0 25 23 94 5 1 0 155 303 285 227 1,366 1,467 1,692.0 0.9 - 4,436 4,843.0 0.9 -
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 6 7.6 0.8 - 23 31.8 0.7 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 5 3 20 21 46.8 0.4 - 103 139.6 0.7 -
Lyssavirus (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 4 3 2 8 8 14.2 0.6 - 49 77.6 0.6 -
Q fever 0 1 0 8 1 0 1 1 12 17 18 126 135 84.0 1.6 32.8 501 346.8 1.4 97.1
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 1.0 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 8 0 2 3 0 3 4 20 9 16 80 83 78.0 1.1 - 505 326.8 1.5 83.6
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 1.4 2.1 - 14 8.2 1.7 2.8
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 6 4 9 24 24 45.0 0.5 - 141 247.8 0.6 -
Tuberculosis 0 5 0 6 0 0 6 7 24 49 44 240 264 310.4 0.9 - 1,212 1,324.4 0.9 -
Totals 88 1,745 164 2,368 548 170 1,781 1,324 8,188 9,289 8,254 50,723 54,526        227,805       

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