Fortnight 06: 11 March to 24 March 2017

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 06 January 2017

Fortnight 06: 11 March to 24 March 2017

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Cryptosporidiosis

Notifications for cryptosporidiosis decreased this fortnight but remain high nationally with 426 notified in the period (compared to 458 in the previous period) and 2,067 for the past quarter which is 1.5 times the quarterly rolling mean of 1,385.4. A hot end to summer is thought to be a factor in this increase. Commercial pools and water parks have been linked to cryptosporidiosis clusters in several states.

Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

While notifications for influenza remain above expected interseasonal levels, the number of cases nationally has been decreasing in most jurisdictions since the beginning of March. The number of notifications for this reporting period (n=1,168) has decreased by over 13% compared to the previous reporting period (n=1,336). For the year to 24 March 2017, 87% of notifications of laboratory confirmed influenza to the NNDSS were influenza A (74% A(unsubtyped), 1% influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 12% influenza A (H3N2)), 13% were influenza B and less than 1% were influenza C, influenza A&B co-infections or untyped.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD)

The number of cases of IMD due to serogroup W (MenW) has been increasing across most jurisdictions in Australia since 2013. The Commonwealth Department of Health, in collaboration with the states and territories, is closely monitoring the incidence of MenW in Australia. For the latest information on IMD, refer to the Department’s website.

Measles

There have been 34 cases of measles notified in 2017 as at 24 March, including 12 cases from Western Australia, 11 cases from New South Wales, 6 cases from Queensland, 4 cases from Victoria and 1 case from the Northern Territory. The median age of cases is 20 years with a range of 0 years to 43 years. Eighty two per cent of cases notified this year (n=28) were either imported (n=21) or import-related (=7). For the remaining 18% of cases (n=6) a link to the primary imported case could not be established.

Of the imported cases (n=21), 11 acquired the disease in Indonesia, 3 in Malaysia, 2 in India, and one each in Thailand, Cambodia, Spain, Italy and Pakistan.

Vaccination status was known for 19 cases. Of these, 16 were not vaccinated, including 5 infants too young for vaccination; 2 were partially vaccinated having received one dose of a measles containing vaccine, and 1 was fully vaccinated having received two doses of a measles containing vaccine.

People travelling to measles endemic regions should consider their measles immunisation status as part of their travel planning.

Figure 1. Notifications of measles, Australia, 1 January 2017 – 24 March 2017, by importation status* and country.

Figure 1. Notifications of measles, Australia, 1 January 2017 – 24 March 2017, by importation status* and country.

* Unknown = a link to the primary imported cases could not be established.


Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 25/12/2016 to 24/03/2017.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 24/03/2017. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 25/03/2016 to 24/03/2017.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 24/03/2017. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.


Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.

Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 11/03/2017 to 24/03/2017

Footnotes:

* Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

The data in this report is reliant on the surveillance data provided from by states and territories to the Department of Health. Delays in the reporting of data may cause retrospective revision causing discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figures from the previous period. Please note that Victoria is currently experiencing an administrative backlog in the entry of notifications, this has affected the availability of notification data for the following diseases: Gonoccocal infection, Varicella and Campylobacteriosis.

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 11/12/2016 to 10/03/2017
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 11/12/2015 to 10/03/2016
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 11/12/2014 to 10/03/2015
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 11/12/2013 to 10/03/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 11/12/2012 to 10/03/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 12/12/2011 to 10/03/2012
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 11/03/2017 to 10/03/2017
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 12/03/2015 to 10/03/2016
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 11/03/2014 to 10/03/2015
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 11/03/2013 to 10/03/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 11/03/2012 to 10/03/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 12/03/2011 to 10/03/2012
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2017 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 12 6 37 38 46.0 0.8 - 148 173.4 0.9 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 6 105 1 42 1 2 56 25 238 222 281 1,358 1,390 1,506.8 0.9 - 6,340 6,458.8 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 10 18 31 132 140 130.0 1.1 - 649 467.8 1.4 51.7
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 4 154 2 100 0 6 37 44 347 432 555 2,307 2,377 2,423.6 1.0 - 10,918 10,093.4 1.1 34.2
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 4 4 4 15 15 10.0 1.5 - 59 49.2 1.2 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 0 2.0 0.0 -
Campylobacteriosis 20 NN 24 314 138 29 271 137 933 985 805 6,328 6,702 4,906.2 1.4 - 24,752 18,295.6 1.4 -
Cryptosporidiosis 10 122 6 143 33 1 56 55 426 458 430 2,017 2,067 1,385.4 1.5 - 5,351 3,347.0 1.6 219.7
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 5 5.4 0.9 - 15 18.0 0.8 -
Hepatitis A 0 1 0 1 0 1 3 1 7 8 8 47 56 69.4 0.8 - 134 184.0 0.7 -
Hepatitis E 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 2 1 18 18 12.4 1.5 - 39 41.8 0.9 -
Listeriosis 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 7 5 22 24 25.4 0.9 - 84 79.2 1.1 -
Paratyhoid 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 4 1 3 22 25 29.4 0.9 - 69 73.8 0.9 -
STEC 0 3 0 0 10 0 0 4 17 25 5 132 137 38.0 3.6 83.2 414 132.0 3.1 225.4
Salmonellosis 18 210 25 293 85 19 187 166 1,003 888 970 5,788 6,050 5,063.6 1.2 - 17,921 14,189.4 1.3 -
Shigellosis 0 7 10 8 0 0 17 3 45 66 39 385 400 266.0 1.5 - 1,442 763.2 1.9 130.7
Typhoid Fever 0 1 0 2 1 0 4 0 8 11 4 51 53 50.2 1.1 - 117 125.8 0.9 -
Quarantinable diseases
Avian influenza in humans (AIH) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 1 3.4 0.3 -
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 60 1,175 30 982 232 1 0 512 2,992 3,276 2,955 18,758 19,338 20,500.4 0.9 - 77,009 80,801.4 1.0 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 6 392 25 231 50 4 65 169 942 1,158 866 6,971 7,180 4,239.6 1.7 1,195.6 24,819 15,593.8 1.6 4,165.5
Syphilis < 2 yearsᵡ 3 20 4 37 3 0 0 12 79 101 118 722 745 496.0 1.5 - 3,282 1,940.6 1.7 79.7
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 4 0 8 1 0 105 3 121 118 82 588 591 422.8 1.4 25.1 2,147 1,672.0 1.3 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 2 4.0 0.5 -
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 7 2.4 2.9 1.6
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 4 4 2.8 1.4 - 19 17.2 1.1 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 12 346 60 476 90 9 114 61 1,168 1,366 1,254 7,630 8,005 3,249.4 2.5 1,509.4 93,142 54,198.2 1.7 -
Measles 0 3 1 3 0 0 0 4 11 6 10 34 38 52.0 0.7 - 97 184.0 0.5 -
Mumps 0 7 3 14 1 0 0 1 26 25 63 148 156 112.6 1.4 - 638 334.2 1.9 -
Pertussis 16 228 4 51 57 0 82 50 488 498 823 3,347 3,550 4,837.6 0.7 - 17,687 21,116.2 0.8 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 1 10 1 8 6 2 8 5 41 40 32 245 258 216.6 1.2 1.0 1,727 1,652.4 1.0 -
Poliovirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rotavirus NN 16 0 44 10 1 NN 15 NN NN NN 621 655 N/A N/A - 2,561 N/A N/A -
Rubella 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 4 5.8 0.7 - 18 27.6 0.7 -
Rubella congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Tetanus 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 1.6 1.3 - 6 4.2 1.4 -
Varicella zoster (chickenpox) 1 NN 1 6 10 1 6 33 58 59 115 328 348 476.6 0.7 - 2,242 2,198.8 1.0 -
Varicella zoster (shingles) 17 NN 12 1 42 1 2 61 136 189 292 1,132 1,206 1,392.2 0.9 - 6,013 5,212.2 1.2 -
Varicella zoster (unspecified) 7 NN 0 320 60 20 74 104 585 457 673 3,118 3,337 2,892.0 1.2 - 15,713 11,191.8 1.4 392.8
Vectorborne diseases
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 3 0 17 1 0 0 2 23 13 20 100 102 460.8 0.2 - 313 1,716.2 0.2 -
Chikungunya virus infection 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 15 15 25.0 0.6 - 112 83.4 1.3 -
Dengue virus infection 0 9 2 9 2 0 0 10 32 53 128 372 384 616.0 0.6 - 1,995 1,569.8 1.3 -
Flavivirus unspecified (unspecified) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 8 10.0 0.8 - 87 19.6 4.4 36.4
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 0 1.8 0.0 -

Malaria

0 2 0 7 1 0 0 0 10 27 12 113 119 91.2 1.3 - 342 341.0 1.0 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 0 3.8 0.0 -
Ross River virus infection 1 67 9 95 40 1 107 85 405 710 275 3,678 3,749 2,225.6 1.7 - 5,830 5,473.8 1.1 -
West Nile/Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 0 1.2 0.0 -
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 4 5.0 0.8 - 17 22.6 0.8 -
Leptospirosis 0 1 1 5 0 0 0 0 7 7 8 46 46 26.0 1.8 - 150 103.8 1.4 -
Lyssavirus infecton (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 7.6 0.5 - 20 51.4 0.4 -
Q fever 0 4 0 13 0 0 0 0 17 23 32 132 138 125.8 1.1 - 550 467.6 1.2 -
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 7 21 15 88 93 90.8 1.0 - 385 405.8 0.9 -
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 2.2 0.9 - 20 11.4 1.8 0.8
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 0 0 3 1 1 2 1 8 15 9 72 79 33.0 2.4 27.7 282 191.6 1.5 15.7
Tuberculosis 0 14 0 17 0 0 9 6 46 52 48 296 316 300.0 1.1 - 1,371 1,309.4 1.0 -
Totals 182 2,916 221 3,258 880 100 1,213 1,573 10,257 11,362 10,988 67,243 69,973        327,056       
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