Fortnight 08: 05 April to 18 April 2014

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 30 April 2014

Fortnight 08: 05 April to 18 April 2014

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Measles

There have been 6 cases of measles notified this reporting period from Qld (4), and one each from NSW and Vic. The number of cases has continued to decline this reporting period following an apparent peak in cases at the end of January 2014.

Of the 187 cases notified YTD:

  • Around 40% (n=77) were imported from overseas, with the majority of these cases associated with the Philippines (n=44).
  • Over a third (n=64) were import related, with the majority of these cases linked to cases imported from the Philippines (n=22) and Singapore (n=30). Some of these import related cases (n=13) have been linked to a multi-jurisdictional outbreak associated with an imported case from the Philippines who attended a dance competition in Sydney in early December 2013.
  • Just over a quarter of cases (n=51) are currently reported as being acquired in Australia with the link to an imported case either unable to be established or currently under investigation.
  • Cases continue to be highest in the 15-19 and 30-34 years age groups, representing over a third of cases. Additionally, 10% of cases (n=18) are aged less than 12 months.

Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

In this reporting period there were 505 confirmed influenza notifications with the majority being type A (77%). Type B accounted for 22% of notifications, with the remainder reported as either influenza A and B co-infections or untyped. Of the type A cases, 61% were not subtyped, 13% were reported as (H1N1)pdm09 and 3% were A(H3N2). Around 40% of the notifications for this period were from Queensland (198).

Over the two month period following the 2013 peak of influenza activity at the end of August, national notifications fell by almost two thirds. Since November 2013, the rate of decline in influenza activity has been slow and over the summer period all jurisdictions have reported higher than usual numbers of influenza notifications. In recent years, summer influenza notification activity has increased, with the majority of the summer period influenza activity due to influenza A. The underlying cause of the rising trend in summer influenza notification activity is unknown.

The Australian Government Department of Health continues to monitor influenza activity and will provide a fortnightly summary of influenza activity on the website. The fortnightly Australian Influenza Surveillance Report will commence closer to the onset of the winter influenza season.

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Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 19/01/2014 to 18/04/2014.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 18/04/2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 19/01/2014 to 18/04/2014.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 18/04/2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.

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Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.


Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 05/04/2014 to 18/04/2014

Footnotes:

Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NDP = No Data Provided, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 19/01/2014 to 18/04/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 19/01/2013 to 18/04/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 20/01/2012 to 18/04/2012
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 19/01/2011 to 18/04/2011
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 19/01/2010 to 18/04/2010
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 19/01/2009 to 18/04/2009
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 19/04/2013 to 18/04/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 19/04/2012 to 18/04/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 20/04/2011 to 18/04/2012
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 19/04/2010 to 18/04/2011
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 19/04/2009 to 18/04/2010
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 19/04/2008 to 18/04/2009
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2014 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by;
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 1 0 1 0 0 3 1 6 9 4 60 49 56.2 0.9 - 178 222.2 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 3 97 0 35 12 1 87 21 256 268 276 1,992 1,734 1,750.4 1.0 - 7,013 6,703.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 2 0 0 0 0 8 2 12 12 16 128 101 108.6 0.9 - 402 413.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 7 126 8 121 17 4 74 36 393 487 401 3,067 2,626 2,676.8 1.0 - 10,448 10,435.0 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 4 0 4 11 7 9.6 0.7 - 54 36.4 1.5 10.4
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 2 1.0 2.0 -
Campylobacteriosis 10 NN 6 186 49 20 173 106 550 723 494 5,620 4,597 4,081.8 1.1 - 16,050 16,150.4 1.0 -
Cryptosporidiosis 0 15 4 48 8 3 38 20 136 131 349 1,041 863 1,505.2 0.6 - 2,909 2,824.0 1.0 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 10 7 4.4 1.6 - 18 16.0 1.1 -
Hepatitis A 0 1 0 1 0 0 3 0 5 4 10 93 82 75.2 1.1 - 205 277.2 0.7 -
Hepatitis E 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 9 8 12.8 0.6 - 30 37.0 0.8 -
Listeriosis 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 5 3 4 26 22 27.6 0.8 - 69 79.0 0.9 -
STEC, VTEC 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 6 6 46 39 36.2 1.1 - 173 105.0 1.6 21.9
Salmonellosis 12 208 14 265 74 12 144 42 771 804 617 6,200 5,275 3,984.0 1.3 292.3 14,099 10,930.8 1.3 127.7
Shigellosis 1 8 1 7 1 0 11 0 29 36 18 375 305 163.4 1.9 78.2 742 584.4 1.3 -
Typhoid Fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 48 38 48.0 0.8 - 126 121.0 1.0 -
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1.0 1.0 - 4 4.6 0.9 -
HPAIH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.0 - 0 0.5 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 46 724 31 775 164 79 666 384 2,869 3,738 3,542 26,373 22,701 19,932.2 1.1 - 84,170 73,319.8 1.1 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 3 0.2 15.0 1.9 3 1.0 3.0 0.6
Gonococcal infection 6 140 26 85 23 1 97 64 442 663 694 4,902 4,093 3,003.6 1.4 - 15,650 10,771.0 1.5 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1.6 0.6 - 6 4.2 1.4 -
Syphilis < 2 years 0 2 1 15 2 0 21 8 49 45 62 469 399 357.0 1.1 - 1,720 1,340.2 1.3 12.8
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 3 4 0 10 3 1 36 0 57 73 73 510 449 359.6 1.2 - 1,724 1,366.8 1.3 260.7
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 2 0.8 2.5 -
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 3.4 0.9 - 19 18.8 1.0 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 11 94 17 198 63 8 54 60 505 603 350 4,579 3,735 2,030.4 1.8 - 30,054 31,170.6 1.0 -
Measles 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 6 13 1 187 159 38.8 4.1 46.3 328 120.8 2.7 94.0
Mumps 1 3 0 2 0 0 0 2 8 3 4 72 63 43.4 1.5 - 209 167.0 1.3 -
Pertussis 6 40 1 54 11 3 80 38 233 283 470 2,767 2,224 6,935.6 0.3 - 10,902 28,893.8 0.4 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 0 9 2 5 3 2 12 3 36 37 49 267 229 230.8 1.0 - 1,548 1,710.0 0.9 -
Poliomyelitis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rubella 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 7 4 11.8 0.3 - 33 39.4 0.8 -
Rubella Congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 2 0.2 10.0 0.9
Tetanus 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1.6 0.6 - 2 3.8 0.5 -
Varicella zoster (Chickenpox)+ 0 NN 6 0 6 0 27 17 56 80 66 543 433 350.4 1.2 - 2,129 1,917.4 1.1 -
Varicella zoster (Shingles)+ 0 NN 7 0 49 3 44 29 132 179 218 1,539 1,279 956.0 1.3 - 5,051 3,488.4 1.4 -
Varicella zoster (Unspecified)+ 8 NN 0 171 30 7 145 55 416 457 392 3,425 2,876 1,931.0 1.5 469.4 10,603 7,215.2 1.5 764.2
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC) 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 6 0 16 15 3.4 4.4 9.3 31 11.6 2.7 9.4
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 15 2 20 0 0 0 3 40 40 267 399 328 766.0 0.4 - 2,976 1,868.6 1.6 -
Dengue virus infection 0 8 4 6 5 0 2 30 55 60 84 713 612 528.4 1.2 - 1,963 1,186.2 1.7 27.1
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 4 0.4 10.0 2.5
Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0.6 1.7 - 4 1.4 2.9 0.3
Malaria 2 2 0 1 1 0 1 2 9 11 13 104 94 106.4 0.9 - 370 442.6 0.8 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4 0.0 - 1 4.6 0.2 -
Ross River virus infection 0 33 21 107 2 2 0 83 248 305 210 1,923 1,660 2,066.2 0.8 - 4,586 4,756.4 1.0 -
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 6 7.0 0.9 - 21 32.2 0.7 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 6 1 8 31 29 54.4 0.5 - 104 136.6 0.8 -
Lyssavirus (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 9 9 14.2 0.6 - 49 76.4 0.6 -
Q fever 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 22 24 159 117 98.2 1.2 - 497 347.8 1.4 98.5
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 1.0 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 4 0 1 2 0 3 6 16 9 17 109 90 83.4 1.1 - 500 328.6 1.5 80.9
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 1.6 0.6 - 13 8.2 1.6 1.2
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 6 0 2 1 0 0 0 9 3 2 36 32 39.4 0.8 - 144 246.0 0.6 -
Tuberculosis 1 9 1 8 1 0 23 4 47 59 62 378 302 307.8 1.0 - 1,251 1,324.6 0.9 -
Totals 117 1,558 152 2,147 528 146 1,759 1,017 7,424 9,178 8,815 68,263 57,702        229,191       

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