Fortnight 10: 06 May to 19 May 2017

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 02 June 2017

Fortnight 10: 06 May to 19 May 2017

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Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)

There have been 8 notifications of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in the last quarter compared to the quarterly rolling 5 year mean of 3.4 notifications. One of these notifications was positive for shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serogroup O26 and the source of the infection was undetermined. Two cases were linked and were STEC negative, but cryptosporidiosis positive and likely attributable to dairy cattle exposures. One case spent their entire incubation period in the Philippines. No other links were detected between cases.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD)

The number of cases of IMD due to serogroup W (MenW) has been increasing across most jurisdictions in Australia since 2013. The Commonwealth Department of Health, in collaboration with the states and territories, is closely monitoring the incidence of MenW in Australia. For the latest information on IMD, refer to the Department’s website.

Infectious syphilis

Increases in infectious syphilis notifications are attributed to the on-going outbreak occurring in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people residing in northern Australia.

In January 2011, an increase of infectious syphilis notifications among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was identified in the North West region of Queensland, following a steady decline at a national level in remote communities. Subsequent increases in infectious syphilis notifications were reported in the Northern Territory in 2013, Western Australia in 2014 and South Australia in 2016, following sustained periods of low notification rates.

For the latest information on the infectious syphilis outbreak, refer to the Department’s website - Infectious syphilis outbreak.

Shigellosis

There have been 71 notifications of shigellosis in the last fortnight compared to 57 in the previous period and 56 in the same period in 2016. Of these, 34 were notified in the Northern Territory. Twelve cases were typed as Shigella flexneri biotype 2b, another 6 cases are S. flexneri with biotype pending and the remainder were diagnosed by PCR* only. There were also 4 notifications of S. flexneri 2b in WA. The increase is distributed across central Australia with no focal point and mainly in Indigenous adults.


Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 19/02/2017 to 19/05/2017.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 19/05/2017. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 20/05/2016 to 19/05/2017.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 19/05/2017. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.

*The currently available PCR tests cannot distinguish between Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli and currently not considered a confirmed case under the national case definition.


Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.

Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 06/05/2017 to 19/05/2017

Footnotes:

* Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

The data in this report is reliant on the surveillance data provided from by states and territories to the Department of Health. Delays in the reporting of data may cause retrospective revision causing discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figures from the previous period. Please note that Victoria is currently experiencing an administrative backlog in the entry of notifications, this has affected the availability of notification data for the following diseases: Gonoccocal infection, Varicella and Campylobacteriosis.

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 19/02/2017 to 19/05/2017
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 20/02/2016 to 19/05/2016
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 19/02/2015 to 19/05/2015
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 19/02/2014 to 19/05/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 19/02/2013 to 19/05/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 20/02/2012 to 19/05/2012
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 20/05/2017 to 19/05/2017
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 21/05/2015 to 19/05/2016
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 20/05/2014 to 19/05/2015
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 20/05/2013 to 19/05/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 20/05/2012 to 19/05/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 21/05/2011 to 19/05/2012
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2017 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 4 4 7 56 35 48.6 0.7 - 139 173.2 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 8 87 1 45 2 2 69 15 229 217 307 2,341 1,568 1,640.4 1.0 - 6,230 6,476.6 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 1 0 8 0 0 0 4 13 18 25 227 137 151.8 0.9 - 651 581.0 1.1 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 10 126 10 83 1 13 61 36 340 316 509 3,827 2,473 2,593.6 1.0 - 10,560 9,942.4 1.1 -
Hepatitis D 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 19 13 12.8 1.0 - 57 49.4 1.2 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 0.0 - 0 2.0 0.0 -
Campylobacteriosis 15 NN 25 289 119 21 213 118 800 795 810 9,393 5,470 4,343.2 1.3 - 24,727 18,433.0 1.3 -
Cryptosporidiosis 7 45 10 47 17 1 73 15 215 261 264 3,148 2,215 1,600.2 1.4 - 5,218 3,520.8 1.5 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 9 8 3.4 2.4 1.6 20 17.8 1.1 0.0
Hepatitis A 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 1 64 34 54.2 0.6 - 138 183.0 0.8 -
Hepatitis E 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 27 14 11.2 1.3 - 41 41.4 1.0 -
Listeriosis 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 4 6 31 19 23.6 0.8 - 72 80.6 0.9 -
Paratyhoid 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 4 30 16 21.0 0.8 - 66 73.2 0.9 -
STEC 0 2 0 0 7 0 1 1 11 18 5 208 130 35.6 3.7 83.6 466 136.2 3.4 275.2
Salmonellosis 9 135 24 151 64 5 120 102 610 733 792 8,844 5,428 4,724.2 1.1 - 17,665 14,433.0 1.2 -
Shigellosis 0 4 34 9 0 0 14 10 71 57 56 607 366 215.4 1.7 - 1,479 789.0 1.9 103.7
Typhoid Fever 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 4 9 4 78 50 36.6 1.4 - 129 123.6 1.0 -
Quarantinable diseases
Avian influenza in humans (AIH) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 0.0 - 1 2.6 0.4 -
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 62 1,054 89 1,049 250 0 51 441 2,996 2,855 3,308 32,059 20,594 21,421.8 1.0 - 78,829 81,876.0 1.0 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 10 325 59 210 47 7 190 132 980 1,009 994 11,564 7,244 4,363.2 1.7 1,093.6 26,660 15,930.0 1.7 5,308.0
Syphilis < 2 yearsᵡ 0 20 7 43 6 1 14 10 101 130 139 1,386 881 539.4 1.6 9.1 3,475 2,013.0 1.7 121.2
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 2 10 14 0 0 46 3 75 68 81 893 576 451.4 1.3 - 2,111 1,696.4 1.2 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0.6 3.3 0.3 4 3.8 1.1 -
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0.6 3.3 0.3 8 1.8 4.4 2.9
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 3 3.2 0.9 - 16 17.8 0.9 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 7 390 13 317 164 8 204 63 1,166 852 986 11,880 7,489 4,080.6 1.8 - 93,103 54,806.8 1.7 -
Measles 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 5 54 37 36.6 1.0 - 97 183.0 0.5 -
Mumps 0 6 4 13 3 0 0 0 26 24 22 279 197 96.8 2.0 - 638 354.8 1.8 -
Pertussis 7 235 5 41 62 0 50 34 434 464 599 5,045 2,900 3,767.2 0.8 - 16,966 20,638.6 0.8 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 1 20 1 13 9 1 19 6 70 48 59 455 318 279.2 1.1 - 1,732 1,648.4 1.1 -
Poliovirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rotavirus NN 37 69 69 41 2 NN 45 NN NN NN 1,223 827 N/A N/A 138.4 2,788 N/A N/A -
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 4 4.6 0.9 - 16 26.8 0.6 -
Rubella congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 1.4 1.4 - 6 4.0 1.5 -
Varicella zoster (chickenpox) 1 NN 0 1 12 0 8 9 31 47 86 758 384 467.8 0.8 - 2,851 2,218.8 1.3 195.1
Varicella zoster (shingles) 11 NN 18 1 74 0 5 60 169 194 275 2,464 1,369 1,417.6 1.0 - 7,124 5,303.6 1.3 -
Varicella zoster (unspecified) 6 NN 0 314 48 1 3 84 456 388 568 6,113 3,768 2,885.0 1.3 - 15,554 11,385.0 1.4 -
Vectorborne diseases
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 4 2 12 0 1 0 1 20 17 17 167 115 581.2 0.2 - 303 1,668.6 0.2 -
Chikungunya virus infection 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 7 27 17 23.2 0.7 - 107 84.8 1.3 -
Dengue virus infection 0 7 3 6 0 1 1 3 21 41 122 543 264 612.4 0.4 - 1,591 1,669.0 1.0 -
Flavivirus unspecified (unspecified) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 10 4 10.8 0.4 - 72 23.6 3.1 4.2
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 1.8 0.0 -

Malaria

0 1 0 4 3 0 0 1 9 9 11 159 88 66.4 1.3 - 354 334.8 1.1 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 0 1.4 0.0 -
Ross River virus infection 0 57 9 176 17 3 36 54 352 337 171 5,257 2,923 2,445.4 1.2 - 6,468 5,452.6 1.2 -
West Nile/Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0.0 0.0 - 1 1.0 1.0 -
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 8 4 3.0 1.3 - 21 21.6 1.0 -
Leptospirosis 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 2 10 67 43 36.6 1.2 - 138 99.6 1.4 -
Lyssavirus infecton (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 7.2 0.3 - 23 49.6 0.5 -
Q fever 0 6 0 13 2 0 0 0 21 15 15 210 131 125.4 1.0 - 542 472.0 1.1 -
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 3 0 4 2 0 8 1 18 18 24 156 101 98.2 1.0 - 380 406.6 0.9 -
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 2.6 0.8 - 18 12.0 1.5 -
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 11 8 106 61 37.4 1.6 13.6 286 188.8 1.5 32.9
Tuberculosis 0 12 0 7 0 0 10 2 31 40 42 465 287 301.8 1.0 - 1,360 1,309.0 1.0 -
Totals 154 2,590 393 2,949 951 67 1,205 1,251 9,297 9,016 10,347 110,285 68,616        331,301       
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