Fortnight 14: 28 June to 11 July 2014

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 17 July 2014

Fortnight 14: 28 June 2014 to 11 July 2014

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Measles

There were 15 cases notified in this reporting period including Qld (6), Vic (5), WA (3) and NSW (1).

Of the 258 cases notified year to date:

  • The majority were either imported from overseas 39% (n=101) or import related 31% (n=80). These cases were associated with travel to the Philippines, Singapore and more recently Papua New Guinea.
  • Although 30% of cases were reported as being acquired in Australia, with the link to an imported case either not established or currently under investigation, it is likely these are all import related.
  • Cases continue to be highest in the 15-19 and 30-34 years age groups, representing over a third of cases. Additionally, 9% of cases (n=24) were less than 12 months of age.
  • Of those cases aged over 12 months (n=234) and eligible for vaccination, 39% (n=91) were reported as not vaccinated and a further 42% (n=99) had an unknown vaccination status. The remaining 19% of cases (n=44) were reported as being vaccinated, of which 37 had received one dose and seven had received two doses of a measles containing vaccine.
  • Vaccination is the best protection against measles. All travellers should ensure that they are up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations including measles prior to travel. More information is available on vaccination from the National Immunisation Programme.

Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

Notifications of laboratory confirmed influenza continued to increase during this reporting period signalling the start of the 2014 influenza season.

During the season, a comprehensive analysis of influenza surveillance data is available in The Australian Influenza Surveillance Report which is published fortnightly on the Department of Health website.

Hepatitis E

There were 4 notifications of hepatitis E during this reporting period, 3 from NSW and 1 from the ACT. In the past quarter there were 14 notifications of hepatitis E, a ratio of 1.8 compared with the quarterly 5 year rolling mean of 8. NSW Health continues to investigate a cluster of 10 cases who all reported eating at the same restaurant.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

There were 5 notifications of STEC during this reporting period, 2 from SA and 1 each from NSW, QLD and WA. In the past quarter there were 36 notifications, a ratio of 1.8 compared with the quarterly 5 year rolling mean of 20.4.  SA Health is continuing to investigate a cluster of 8 cases of STEC O157 with an onset from mid-May.

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Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 13/04/2014 to 11/07/2014.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 11/07/2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 12/07/2013 to 11/07/2014.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 11/07/2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.

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Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.


Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 28/06/2014 to 11/07/2014

Footnotes:

Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NDP = No Data Provided, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 13/04/2014 to 11/07/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 13/04/2013 to 11/07/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 13/04/2012 to 11/07/2012
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 13/04/2011 to 11/07/2011
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 13/04/2010 to 11/07/2010
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 13/04/2009 to 11/07/2009
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 12/07/2013 to 11/07/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 12/07/2012 to 11/07/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 13/07/2011 to 11/07/2012
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 12/07/2010 to 11/07/2011
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 12/07/2009 to 11/07/2010
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 12/07/2008 to 11/07/2009
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2014 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by;
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 7 12 105 44 51.4 0.9 - 179 220.4 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 3 112 0 40 12 0 65 31 263 255 280 3,508 1,652 1,677.6 1.0 - 6,884 6,746.8 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 2 0 0 0 1 0 6 2 11 22 8 238 111 109.2 1.0 - 434 415.2 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 5 112 3 132 15 8 82 50 407 368 380 5,432 2,543 2,544.0 1.0 - 10,481 10,397.6 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 4 3 5 26 15 11.6 1.3 - 50 37.6 1.3 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.2 5.0 - 2 1.2 1.7 -
Campylobacteriosis 19 NN 9 225 78 18 255 89 693 802 441 10,096 4,699 3,500.8 1.3 496.4 17,588 16,109.2 1.1 -
Cryptosporidiosis 0 12 2 16 8 1 25 11 75 98 73 1,610 637 780.2 0.8 - 2,541 2,936.8 0.9 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 16 5 3.4 1.5 - 22 16.0 1.4 -
Hepatitis A 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 4 5 10 129 35 60.4 0.6 - 204 270.2 0.8 -
Hepatitis E 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 24 14 8.0 1.8 4.6 36 37.2 1.0 -
Listeriosis 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 4 1 0 44 21 17.2 1.2 - 73 79.4 0.9 -
STEC, VTEC 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 1 5 5 3 82 36 20.4 1.8 2.4 183 107.4 1.7 26.6
Salmonellosis 6 86 19 121 33 4 101 30 400 533 323 9,873 4,017 2,555.8 1.6 891.2 15,104 11,115.0 1.4 1,334.0
Shigellosis 1 9 4 5 0 0 11 3 33 34 16 587 224 122.6 1.8 53.6 843 574.4 1.5 29.7
Typhoid Fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 5 2 68 20 24.2 0.8 - 117 122.2 1.0 -
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 2 2.0 1.0 - 5 4.6 1.1 -
HPAIH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 47 796 76 788 187 65 617 455 3,031 3,284 2,857 46,063 20,749 19,301.6 1.1 - 84,923 74,349.2 1.1 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.2 0.0 - 1 0.8 1.3 -
Gonococcal infection 2 124 52 101 23 3 101 108 514 656 588 8,606 3,872 2,998.4 1.3 - 15,839 11,076.4 1.4 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1.0 0.0 - 5 4.2 1.2 -
Syphilis < 2 years 0 1 2 10 0 0 8 5 26 58 73 931 404 353.0 1.1 - 1,804 1,358.8 1.3 67.3
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 7 0 11 5 0 27 0 50 59 86 884 375 369.8 1.0 - 1,682 1,389.4 1.2 84.8
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 0.0 - 1 1.0 1.0 -
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 1 1 11 8 6.0 1.3 - 22 17.8 1.2 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 26 536 7 506 198 31 285 186 1,775 1,041 781 9,642 5,254 7,320.4 0.7 - 32,547 31,517.6 1.0 -
Measles 0 1 0 6 0 0 5 3 15 14 0 258 76 22.0 3.5 30.0 382 119.4 3.2 160.6
Mumps 1 2 0 3 0 0 0 1 7 4 0 107 38 47.0 0.8 - 190 167.8 1.1 -
Pertussis 8 67 2 41 17 0 83 58 276 327 390 4,679 1,989 5,724.4 0.3 - 10,492 29,004.8 0.4 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 0 39 0 17 6 3 16 8 89 77 104 671 427 477.6 0.9 - 1,500 1,707.0 0.9 -
Poliomyelitis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rubella 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 10 3 9.8 0.3 - 27 39.2 0.7 -
Rubella Congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 1 0.4 2.5 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.6 1.7 - 1 3.8 0.3 -
Varicella zoster (Chickenpox)+ 1 NN 2 4 11 0 14 9 41 78 90 957 418 443.0 0.9 - 2,134 1,943.0 1.1 -
Varicella zoster (Shingles)+ 1 NN 14 0 56 1 40 41 153 195 137 2,823 1,247 932.0 1.3 - 5,223 3,619.6 1.4 -
Varicella zoster (Unspecified)+ 11 NN 1 180 31 5 120 53 401 421 389 5,710 2,563 1,872.0 1.4 187.7 10,789 7,451.8 1.4 981.0
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 27 12 2.8 4.3 6.2 39 12.0 3.3 15.0
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 8 2 9 0 0 0 3 22 27 131 574 193 576.8 0.3 - 1,775 2,064.6 0.9 -
Dengue virus infection 1 13 0 5 1 2 0 20 42 56 71 1,114 388 296.0 1.3 - 1,896 1,261.6 1.5 -
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 3 0.6 5.0 1.3
Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 2 1.4 1.4 -
Malaria 1 8 0 4 0 0 0 1 14 13 18 173 76 96.8 0.8 - 356 435.0 0.8 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.2 0.0 - 1 4.2 0.2 -
Ross River virus infection 0 17 12 61 1 0 0 35 126 169 130 3,104 1,277 1,335.0 1.0 - 4,585 4,813.0 1.0 -
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 8 2 6.0 0.3 - 18 29.6 0.6 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 1 61 31 45.6 0.7 - 102 137.8 0.7 -
Lyssavirus (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 16 6 15.8 0.4 - 41 73.6 0.6 -
Q fever 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 1 5 18 21 266 95 96.8 1.0 - 479 359.8 1.3 36.7
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.0 - 0 0.5 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 3 0 1 0 0 4 5 13 14 27 206 98 98.4 1.0 - 492 336.8 1.5 59.1
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 7 4 2.6 1.5 - 14 8.6 1.6 3.1
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 4 11 4 71 38 54.4 0.7 - 153 239.2 0.6 -
Tuberculosis 3 10 0 1 1 0 20 8 43 54 50 655 287 290.2 1.0 - 1,268 1,323.8 1.0 -
Totals 139 1,973 207 2,298 689 141 1,892 1,221 8,560 8,735 7,508 119,479 54,007        233,533       

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