Fortnight 16: 26 July to 08 August 2014

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 15 August 2014

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Measles

There were 12 cases notified in this reporting period including from WA (5), Vic (2), ACT (2), NSW (1), Qld (1) and Tas (1).

Of the 290 cases notified year to date:

  • The majority were either imported from overseas 38% (n=111) or import related 30% (n=86). These cases were associated with travel to the Philippines, Singapore and more recently Papua New Guinea.
  • Although 32% of cases were reported as being acquired in Australia, with the link to an imported case either not established or currently under investigation, it is likely these are all import related.
  • Cases continue to be highest in the 15-19 and 30-34 years age groups, representing over a third of cases. 10% of cases (n=27) were less than 12 months of age.
  • Of those cases aged over 12 months (n=263) and eligible for vaccination, 39% (n=102) were reported as not vaccinated and 41% (n=108) had an unknown vaccination status. The remaining 20% of cases (n=53) were reported as being vaccinated, of which 44 had received one dose and nine had received two doses of a measles containing vaccine.

Vaccination is the best protection against measles. All travellers should ensure that they are up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations, including measles, prior to travel. More information is available on vaccination from the National Immunisation Programme.

Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

  • Nationally influenza activity has continued to increase, with all jurisdictions except Victoria, reporting increasing activity.
  • As at 1 August 2014, there have been 18,009 cases of laboratory confirmed influenza reported, with 5,827 notifications occurring during the report fortnight.
  • Nationally influenza A is the predominant influenza virus type. Of those viruses where subtyping data are available, A(H1N1)pdm09 is most common. This trend is consistent across all jurisdictions, except in New South Wales and the ACT where influenza A(H3N2) is circulating at higher levels. The proportion of A(H3N2) in WA has increased in recent weeks however, A(H1N1)pdm09 remains more prevalent.
  • Influenza virus strains currently circulating within Australia are similar to the strains included in the 2014 vaccine.
  • The rate of influenza associated hospitalisations has dropped slightly over the past fortnight, with around 10% of cases admitted directly to ICU. The majority of hospital admissions have been associated influenza A infections and the median age of cases is 42 years.
  • As yet, there is no clear indication of the overall severity of the season.
  • The WHO has reported that globally influenza activity remains low. Following the recent northern hemisphere season, influenza activity has returned to inter-seasonal levels across most of these regions. In the southern hemisphere, there has been a gradual increase of influenza activity.

Figure 1. Notifications of laboratory confirmed influenza, Australia, 1 January 2010 to 1 August 2014, by week.

Figure 1. Notifications of laboratory confirmed influenza, Australia, 1 January 2010 to 1 August 2014, by week

A comprehensive analysis of influenza surveillance data is available in the Australian Influenza Surveillance Report, which is published fortnightly on the Department of Health website.

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Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 11 May 2014 to 08 August 2014.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 08 August 2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 09 August 2013 to 08 August 2014.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 08 August 2014. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.

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Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.


Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 26/07/2014 to 08/08/2014

Footnotes:

Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NDP = No Data Provided, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 11/05/2014 to 08/08/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 11/05/2013 to 08/08/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 11/05/2012 to 08/08/2012
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 11/05/2011 to 08/08/2011
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 11/05/2010 to 08/08/2010
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 11/05/2009 to 08/08/2009
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 09/08/2013 to 08/08/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 09/08/2012 to 08/08/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 10/08/2011 to 08/08/2012
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 09/08/2010 to 08/08/2011
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 09/08/2009 to 08/08/2010
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 09/08/2008 to 08/08/2009
State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2014 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by;
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 1 7 1 6 116 39 47.0 0.8 - 180 218.4 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 3 76 0 42 10 2 55 29 217 240 284 3,986 1,656 1,712.4 1.0 - 6,785 6,755.0 1.0 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 2 7 15 14 277 122 105.2 1.2 - 444 416.0 1.1 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 7 157 7 119 15 9 49 54 417 374 399 6,217 2,628 2,562.2 1.0 - 10,451 10,391.6 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 27 12 11.4 1.1 - 48 37.4 1.3 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.2 0.0 - 2 1.2 1.7 -
Campylobacteriosis 26 NN 8 229 65 30 228 119 705 721 578 11,528 4,808 3,599.8 1.3 491.2 17,915 16,104.6 1.1 -
Cryptosporidiosis 0 9 4 12 10 3 28 5 71 61 84 1,747 543 517.6 1.0 - 2,496 2,948.8 0.8 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 17 6 3.6 1.7 - 22 16.0 1.4 -
Hepatitis A 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 4 2 7 135 25 48.8 0.5 - 198 269.6 0.7 -
Hepatitis E 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 29 15 8.4 1.8 3.0 40 36.2 1.1 -
Listeriosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 47 17 15.8 1.1 - 73 77.8 0.9 -
STEC, VTEC 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 3 5 87 27 18.4 1.5 0.0 182 108.0 1.7 23.2
Salmonellosis 12 103 8 126 45 5 80 47 426 427 372 10,754 3,432 2,167.4 1.6 612.3 15,258 11,167.0 1.4 1,400.3
Shigellosis 0 4 2 9 1 0 11 4 31 37 24 661 236 122.8 1.9 71.8 876 572.6 1.5 72.3
Typhoid Fever 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 4 6 3 78 24 22.2 1.1 - 120 122.2 1.0 -
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1.8 0.6 - 4 4.6 0.9 -
HPAIH 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 52 822 40 775 210 57 609 414 2,979 2,973 3,309 52,389 21,067 19,183.0 1.1 - 84,902 74,729.4 1.1 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.2 0.0 - 1 0.8 1.3 -
Gonococcal infection 4 144 10 103 23 3 78 79 444 560 583 9,704 3,847 2,887.0 1.3 - 15,799 11,193.0 1.4 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 3 2 1.2 1.7 - 6 4.4 1.4 -
Syphilis < 2 years 0 8 2 13 1 0 13 2 39 40 71 1,031 404 352.8 1.1 - 1,759 1,367.8 1.3 -
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 1 4 1 8 2 1 45 2 64 64 75 1,067 399 380.8 1.0 - 1,717 1,400.4 1.2 82.5
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0.2 5.0 - 2 1.0 2.0 -
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 12 7 7.0 1.0 - 21 18.0 1.2 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 150 2,890 26 2,394 633 48 618 551 7,310 3,957 1,764 21,037 15,773 16,313.4 1.0 - 40,870 31,960.2 1.3 -
Measles 2 1 0 1 0 1 2 5 12 16 2 290 94 22.8 4.1 37.5 411 119.8 3.4 193.8
Mumps 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 5 11 119 37 45.2 0.8 - 186 167.8 1.1 -
Pertussis 10 107 4 53 23 1 139 62 399 346 455 5,486 2,244 5,867.0 0.4 - 10,441 29,008.0 0.4 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 0 19 4 14 10 2 21 15 85 104 75 862 526 569.8 0.9 - 1,538 1,710.0 0.9 -
Poliomyelitis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 10 3 10.8 0.3 - 21 39.4 0.5 -
Rubella Congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 1 0.4 2.5 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.4 2.5 - 1 3.8 0.5 -
Varicella zoster (Chickenpox)+ 1 NN 2 5 6 1 6 12 33 59 81 1,069 394 489.6 0.8 - 2,086 1,956.6 1.1 -
Varicella zoster (Shingles)+ 4 NN 5 1 48 7 14 38 117 196 169 3,206 1,226 933.0 1.3 - 5,268 3,658.2 1.4 -
Varicella zoster (Unspecified)+ 6 NN 0 238 35 6 67 60 412 433 395 6,516 2,640 1,912.6 1.4 168.8 10,786 7,546.8 1.4 897.3
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 25 6 4.0 1.5 - 34 12.4 2.7 10.3
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 4 2 9 0 0 0 4 19 13 142 606 154 470.2 0.3 - 1,528 2,102.0 0.7 -
Dengue virus infection 0 4 5 3 2 0 1 19 34 40 102 1,204 355 281.2 1.3 - 1,784 1,295.8 1.4 -
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 2 0.8 2.5 -
Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 2 1.2 1.7 -
Malaria 1 2 1 3 0 0 0 3 10 14 24 196 78 108.8 0.7 - 338 431.0 0.8 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.2 0.0 - 1 4.2 0.2 -
Ross River virus infection 0 28 6 43 3 0 1 36 117 106 96 3,332 1,053 883.6 1.2 - 4,607 4,810.6 1.0 -
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 2 6.4 0.3 - 16 29.2 0.5 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 67 26 37.4 0.7 - 95 137.8 0.7 -
Lyssavirus (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 17 5 15.2 0.3 - 40 72.2 0.6 -
Q fever 0 1 0 8 0 0 0 0 9 16 25 297 98 95.0 1.0 - 468 368.4 1.3 10.7
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.0 - 0 0.5 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 4 1 3 2 0 3 4 17 13 18 240 100 94.4 1.1 - 484 342.6 1.4 34.6
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 1 2.4 0.4 - 14 8.2 1.7 2.0
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 1 0 4 0 1 1 0 7 7 6 86 45 66.8 0.7 - 153 234.6 0.7 -
Tuberculosis 1 14 0 20 0 1 13 9 58 51 51 775 328 288.6 1.1 - 1,293 1,324.0 1.0 -
Totals 280 4,410 140 4,242 1,148 178 2,089 1,578 14,065 10,918 9,252 145,374 64,506     241,769    

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