Fortnight 19: 09 September to 22 September 2017

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 10 October 2017

Fortnight 19: 09 September to 22 September 2017

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Infectious syphilis

Increases in infectious syphilis notifications are attributed to an on-going outbreak occurring in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people residing in northern and central Australia and continued increases among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of Victoria and NSW.

Outbreak in remote Australia

In January 2011, an increase of infectious syphilis notifications among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was identified in the North West region of Queensland (QLD), following a steady decline at a national level in remote communities. Subsequent increases in infectious syphilis notifications were reported in the Northern Territory (NT) in 2013, Western Australia (WA) in 2014 and South Australia (SA) in 2016, following sustained periods of low notification rates. The outbreak is of significant public health concern given the: elevated rates of infectious syphilis among women of child-bearing age, increasing the risk of congenital syphilis; and the concomitant risk of HIV transmission.

For the latest information on the infectious syphilis outbreak, refer to the Department’s website - Infectious syphilis outbreak.

Increases among MSM

Since 2010, increases in notifications of infectious syphilis have been reported in MSM, predominately 20-39 years of age, residing in urban areas of Victoria (VIC) and NSW.

Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

Influenza activity at the national level decreased this reporting fortnight; however, high levels of activity continued to be reported in a majority of regions. The Australian Government Department of Health continues to monitor influenza activity and a detailed analysis of influenza activity is available on the Department's website.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD)

The number of cases of IMD due to serogroup W and serogroup Y has been increasing across most jurisdictions in Australia. The Australian Government Department of Health, in collaboration with the states and territories, is closely monitoring the incidence of IMD in Australia. For the latest information on IMD, refer to the Department’s website.

Pneumococcal disease (invasive)

Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were around 40% higher over the past quarter (n=855), when compared to the quarterly rolling 5 year mean (n=613.4). Notifications of IPD traditionally increase and peak over the winter months. A more detailed analysis of IPD notification trends in Australia up to 30 June 2017 is available in the IPD quarterly report.


Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 25/06/2017 to 22/09/2017.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 22/09/2016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 23/09/2016 to 22/09/2017.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 22/09/2016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.


Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.

Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 09/09/2017 to 22/09/2017

Footnotes:

* Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 25/06/2017 to 22/09/2017
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 25/06/2016 to 22/09/2016
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 25/06/2015 to 22/09/2015
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 25/06/2014 to 22/09/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 25/06/2013 to 22/09/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 25/06/2012 to 22/09/2012
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 23/09/2017 to 22/09/2017
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 24/09/2015 to 22/09/2016
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 23/09/2014 to 22/09/2015
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 23/09/2013 to 22/09/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 23/09/2012 to 22/09/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 24/09/2011 to 22/09/2012
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2017 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 7 9 104 30 39.0 0.8 - 141 172.2 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 2 99 0 37 1 0 62 18 219 229 236 4,406 1,428 1,661.8 0.9 - 5,937 6,474.2 0.9 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 1 0 12 0 0 2 3 18 28 23 451 145 145.4 1.0 - 646 605.0 1.1 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 2 152 4 76 3 10 74 31 352 362 432 7,408 2,486 2,477.6 1.0 - 10,417 9,955.6 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 36 14 13.2 1.1 - 56 48.2 1.2 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 0 2.0 0.0 -
Campylobacteriosis 11 NN 13 234 126 20 55 126 585 705 972 15,877 4,653 4,525.8 1.0 - 23,222 18,825.6 1.2 -
Cryptosporidiosis 1 13 0 9 3 3 20 1 50 66 83 4,071 540 473.8 1.1 - 5,000 3,660.0 1.4 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 12 3 3.2 0.9 - 19 17.4 1.1 -
Hepatitis A 0 7 0 0 1 0 1 0 9 8 3 121 45 37.0 1.2 - 158 182.8 0.9 -
Hepatitis E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 46 14 9.2 1.5 - 53 40.6 1.3 -
Listeriosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 53 15 13.8 1.1 - 77 79.6 1.0 -
Paratyhoid 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 43 9 11.4 0.8 - 63 75.4 0.8 -
STEC 0 3 0 1 16 1 1 1 23 12 14 343 106 44.6 2.4 - 489 151.8 3.2 233.4
Salmonellosis 7 73 1 79 29 2 90 65 346 386 407 12,721 2,570 2,520.4 1.0 - 16,681 14,802.8 1.1 -
Shigellosis 0 5 10 9 2 1 17 8 52 69 54 1,205 444 208.8 2.1 26.2 1,581 859.8 1.8 53.5
Typhoid Fever 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 4 104 19 17.8 1.1 - 130 123.0 1.1 -
Quarantinable diseases
Avian influenza in humans (AIH) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0.4 2.5 - 2 2.4 0.8 -
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 44 909 49 809 216 2 2 403 2,434 2,762 3,236 59,887 18,267 19,925.2 0.9 - 80,897 83,387.2 1.0 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 5 341 41 165 64 6 267 121 1,010 969 954 21,105 6,605 4,185.8 1.6 86.1 27,790 16,789.8 1.7 4,228.4
Syphilis < 2 years 2 30 7 30 6 0 14 6 95 162 143 3,016 988 593.6 1.7 - 3,922 2,172.0 1.8 265.4
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 4 2 8 0 0 57 4 75 86 83 1,521 527 451.2 1.2 - 2,064 1,742.8 1.2 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6 2 1.6 1.3 - 6 3.8 1.6 -
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0.6 1.7 - 8 2.2 3.6 1.2
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 4 6.4 0.6 - 12 18.0 0.7 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 529 13,295 140 8,143 4,017 718 836 934 28,612 39,032 12,224 181,097 163,084 46,543.6 3.5 70,890.7 202,203 62,783.6 3.2 80,452.7
Measles 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 4 1 5 67 10 51.0 0.2 - 91 178.6 0.5 -
Mumps 0 2 7 12 2 0 0 0 23 37 29 569 213 98.0 2.2 - 686 392.2 1.7 -
Pertussis 7 167 3 57 70 1 75 81 461 462 974 9,253 3,043 4,166.0 0.7 - 15,296 19,349.0 0.8 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 0 43 6 24 9 6 43 14 145 132 94 1,522 855 613.4 1.4 110.6 1,988 1,612.8 1.2 120.0
Poliovirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rotavirus NN 244 0 153 118 9 NN 3 NN NN NN 4,344 2,400 N/A N/A 911.4 5,237 N/A N/A 1,331.6
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 3 6.8 0.4 - 13 23.6 0.6 -
Rubella congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 0.4 2.5 - 5 4.2 1.2 -
Varicella zoster (chickenpox) 7 NN 5 17 11 2 1 27 70 97 123 1,883 572 637.4 0.9 - 2,924 2,276.4 1.3 56.3
Varicella zoster (shingles) 10 NN 15 0 72 12 4 75 188 221 346 5,568 1,467 1,335.0 1.1 - 7,793 5,541.4 1.4 172.1
Varicella zoster (unspecified) 10 NN 0 336 51 12 2 78 489 387 599 12,068 4,103 3,000.2 1.4 31.4 16,302 11,833.4 1.4 78.7
Vectorborne diseases
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 2 1 5 0 0 0 1 9 19 3 326 93 263.6 0.4 - 395 1,595.6 0.2 -
Chikungunya virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 3 57 26 22.0 1.2 - 121 86.0 1.4 -
Dengue virus infection 0 7 0 0 0 0 1 6 14 10 55 819 168 360.8 0.5 - 1,179 1,776.0 0.7 -
Flavivirus unspecified (unspecified) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 14 1 7.0 0.1 - 42 28.2 1.5 -
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.6 0.0 - 1 1.8 0.6 -

Malaria

2 2 3 3 1 0 0 4 15 28 12 282 91 89.0 1.0 - 361 334.0 1.1 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Ross River virus infection 0 19 9 24 2 0 0 16 70 64 48 6,667 604 619.8 1.0 - 7,347 5,434.8 1.4 -
West Nile/Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 6 3 0.2 15.0 1.9 6 1.0 6.0 2.6
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 14 5 5.8 0.9 - 18 21.0 0.9 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 5 116 32 21.4 1.5 3.3 143 98.8 1.4 -
Lyssavirus infecton (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 15 5 7.4 0.7 - 24 45.4 0.5 -
Q fever 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 6 6 21 354 90 113.2 0.8 - 519 482.4 1.1 -
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 2 0 3 2 0 0 3 10 15 11 278 65 108.8 0.6 - 378 410.8 0.9 -
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 2 4.2 0.5 - 12 12.4 1.0 -
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 5 5 3 2 0 7 1 23 17 10 251 119 62.8 1.9 25.0 343 187.0 1.8 85.3
Tuberculosis 0 23 0 8 0 0 17 6 54 49 59 954 326 327.6 1.0 - 1,377 1,309.2 1.1 16.5
Totals 639 15,453 321 10,268 4,825 805 1,655 2,039 35,478 46,448 21,294 359,094 216,297        444,175       
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