Fortnight 21: 07 October to 20 October 2017

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 27 November 2017

Fortnight 21: 07 October to 20 October 2017

PDF printable version of NNDSS report (PDF 122 KB)

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Influenza (laboratory confirmed)

Influenza activity at the national level continued to decline this reporting fortnight after reaching a peak in mid-August. The Australian Government Department of Health continues to monitor influenza activity and a detailed analysis of influenza activity is available on the Department's website.

Pneumococcal disease (invasive)

Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were around 50% higher over the past quarter (n=832), when compared to the quarterly rolling 5 year mean (n=565.6). Notifications of IPD consistently increase and peak over the winter months and tend to correlate with the winter influenza seasons. The unexpectedly higher levels of IPD observed over the past quarter may potentially have been influenced by the increased seasonal influenza activity levels that have also been observed over this period. A more detailed analysis of IPD notification trends in Australia up to 30 June 2017 is available in the IPD quarterly report.

Infectious syphilis

Increases in infectious syphilis notifications are attributed to an on-going outbreak occurring in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people residing in northern and central Australia and continued increases among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of Victoria and NSW.

Outbreak in remote Australia

In January 2011, an increase of infectious syphilis notifications among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was identified in the North West region of Queensland (QLD), following a steady decline at a national level in remote communities. Subsequent increases in infectious syphilis notifications were reported in the Northern Territory (NT) in 2013, Western Australia (WA) in 2014 and South Australia (SA) in 2016, following sustained periods of low notification rates. The outbreak is of significant public health concern given the: elevated rates of infectious syphilis among women of child-bearing age, increasing the risk of congenital syphilis; and the concomitant risk of HIV transmission.

For the latest information on the infectious syphilis outbreak, refer to the Department’s website - Infectious syphilis outbreak.

Increases among MSM

Since 2010, increases in notifications of infectious syphilis have been reported in MSM, predominately 20-39 years of age, residing in urban areas of Victoria (VIC) and NSW.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD)

The number of cases of IMD due to serogroup W and serogroup Y has been increasing across most jurisdictions in Australia. The Australian Government Department of Health, in collaboration with the states and territories, is closely monitoring the incidence of IMD in Australia. For the latest information on IMD, refer to the Department’s website.


Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 23/07/2017 to 20/10/2017.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 20/10/2016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range21/10/2016 to 20/10/2017.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 20/10/2016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.


Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.

Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 07/11/2017 to 20/10/2017

Footnotes:

* Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 23/07/2017 to 20/10/2017
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 23/07/2016 to 20/10/2016
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 23/07/2015 to 20/10/2015
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 23/07/2014 to 20/10/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 23/07/2013 to 20/10/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 23/07/2012 to 20/10/2012
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 21/10/2017 to 20/10/2017
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 22/10/2015 to 20/10/2016
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 21/10/2014 to 20/10/2015
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 21/10/2013 to 20/10/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 21/10/2012 to 20/10/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 22/10/2011 to 20/10/2012
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2017 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 7 112 26 39.2 0.7 - 138 169.8 0.8 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 2 93 2 37 1 1 60 23 219 226 221 4,847 1,467 1,634.6 0.9 - 5,930 6,464.6 0.9 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 0 0 6 0 0 2 8 16 23 27 503 152 151.4 1.0 - 650 608.6 1.1 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 8 157 7 103 1 11 68 42 397 317 436 8,110 2,360 2,487.0 0.9 - 10,346 9,955.0 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 4 0 2 42 16 11.4 1.4 1.3 57 48.8 1.2 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 1.6 0.0 -
Campylobacteriosis 24 NN 14 305 130 23 277 137 910 792 1,044 17,754 5,038 4,738.4 1.1 - 23,195 18,933.6 1.2 -
Cryptosporidiosis 0 19 1 23 6 3 43 6 101 94 103 4,266 510 438.6 1.2 - 5,018 3,679.4 1.4 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 3 3.4 0.9 - 18 17.6 1.0 -
Hepatitis A 0 4 0 1 0 0 1 0 6 18 2 144 60 38.0 1.6 - 177 182.0 1.0 -
Hepatitis E 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 48 8 7.6 1.1 - 54 40.6 1.3 -
Listeriosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 2 57 13 16.2 0.8 - 76 80.6 0.9 -
Paratyhoid 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 45 9 10.0 0.9 - 59 76.2 0.8 -
STEC 0 1 0 1 14 0 2 4 22 15 13 379 108 46.8 2.3 - 495 156.4 3.2 219.0
Salmonellosis 4 94 19 127 38 7 120 73 482 375 451 13,577 2,591 2,542.0 1.0 - 16,644 14,856.2 1.1 -
Shigellosis 0 16 15 12 3 0 31 12 89 56 61 1,351 429 207.6 2.1 22.4 1,622 876.0 1.9 65.5
Typhoid Fever 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 5 3 113 21 21.4 1.0 - 133 123.4 1.1 -
Quarantinable diseases
Avian influenza in humans (AIH) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0.8 1.3 - 1 2.6 0.4 -
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 62 960 61 968 221 49 44 412 2,777 2,529 3,491 69,943 18,145 20,332.8 0.9 - 86,101 85,363.2 1.0 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.4 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 11 300 58 214 46 2 255 72 958 973 959 23,097 6,522 4,156.2 1.6 92.8 28,011 16,953.6 1.7 4,054.7
Syphilis < 2 years 3 23 12 24 5 0 29 19 115 154 129 3,370 988 605.0 1.6 - 4,032 2,210.2 1.8 312.6
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 5 5 9 1 0 50 4 74 70 81 1,634 493 448.2 1.1 - 2,004 1,750.8 1.1 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 2.2 0.9 - 6 3.8 1.6 -
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 5 2 0.8 2.5 - 8 2.4 3.3 1.0
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 11 4 5.4 0.7 - 14 17.8 0.8 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 139 3,939 77 1,663 1,529 109 534 472 8,462 19,033 4,506 217,434 182,036 47,238.6 3.9       84,513.3 227,011 64,761.8 3.5  101,656.2
Measles 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 10 3 81 23 51.2 0.4 - 102 178.4 0.6 -
Mumps 0 2 1 25 0 1 0 1 30 25 25 626 211 106.8 2.0 - 697 400.0 1.7 -
Pertussis 4 156 0 43 52 2 83 69 409 387 867 10,079 2,942 4,545.0 0.6 - 14,511 19,051.4 0.8 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 1 38 5 13 8 1 21 9 96 117 57 1,740 832 565.6 1.5 138.7 2,057 1,608.8 1.3 199.1
Poliovirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rotavirus NN 247 2 155 133 22 NN 14 NN NN NN 5,563 3,027 N/A N/A 1,067.2 6,248 N/A N/A 2,316.1
Rubella 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 11 3 6.2 0.5 - 12 23.6 0.5 -
Rubella congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0.6 0.0 - 5 4.2 1.2 -
Varicella zoster (chickenpox) 4 NN 3 12 15 0 1 21 56 102 126 2,291 761 659.0 1.2 - 3,108 2,285.2 1.4 228.1
Varicella zoster (shingles) 17 NN 14 1 86 1 6 62 187 273 295 6,618 1,921 1,371.4 1.4 - 8,279 5,589.2 1.5 567.2
Varicella zoster (unspecified) 8 NN 0 330 57 14 2 94 505 630 591 14,013 4,191 3,041.0 1.4 111.9 17,108 11,923.0 1.4 783.5
Vectorborne diseases
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 3 0 8 0 0 0 0 11 9 9 349 74 254.4 0.3 - 400 1,580.6 0.3 -
Chikungunya virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 60 23 21.4 1.1 - 109 89.0 1.2 -
Dengue virus infection 0 5 0 4 0 2 1 9 21 25 63 877 155 312.6 0.5 - 1,134 1,790.8 0.6 -
Flavivirus unspecified (unspecified) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 14 1 7.6 0.1 - 30 30.6 1.0 -
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.6 0.0 - 1 1.8 0.6 -

Malaria

0 2 0 3 0 0 0 1 6 6 7 292 78 82.4 0.9 - 356 330.6 1.1 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Ross River virus infection 0 21 2 37 0 0 1 37 98 70 35 6,860 569 640.4 0.9 - 7,469 5,421.0 1.4 -
West Nile/Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0.2 10.0 0.9 6 1.0 6.0 2.6
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 14 5 5.0 1.0 - 17 20.4 0.8 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 2 122 29 17.6 1.6 4.1 144 98.8 1.5 -
Lyssavirus infecton (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15 5 9.8 0.5 - 22 44.4 0.5 -
Q fever 0 2 0 5 0 1 1 0 9 16 21 385 93 116.4 0.8 - 508 486.0 1.0 -
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 4 0 1 2 0 7 2 16 10 11 300 70 106.8 0.7 - 371 410.6 0.9 -
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 3.4 0.3 - 11 12.6 0.9 -
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 5 6 4 2 0 6 2 25 45 15 316 152 65.8 2.3 52.4 375 188.2 2.0 119.3
Tuberculosis 0 12 0 9 0 0 15 4 40 51 73 1,064 329 339.8 1.0 - 1,365 1,304.0 1.0 -
Totals 287 6,118 304 4,147 2,352 249 1,664 1,610 16,158 26,470 13,756 418,567 236,501        476,245       
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