Fortnight 23: 04 November to 17 November 2017

The Communicable Diseases Network Australia holds fortnightly teleconferences to share and evaluate the latest information and developments in communicable diseases surveillance. This report provides a fortnightly summary on diseases of current interest and notifications of Australia's nationally notifiable diseases.

Page last updated: 27 November 2017

Fortnight 23: 04 November to 17 November 2017

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Infectious syphilis

Increases in infectious syphilis notifications are attributed to an on-going outbreak occurring in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people residing in northern and central Australia and continued increases among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of Victoria and NSW.

Outbreak in remote Australia

In January 2011, an increase of infectious syphilis notifications among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was identified in the North West region of Queensland (QLD), following a steady decline at a national level in remote communities. Subsequent increases in infectious syphilis notifications were reported in the Northern Territory (NT) in 2013, Western Australia (WA) in 2014 and South Australia (SA) in 2016, following sustained periods of low notification rates. The outbreak is of significant public health concern given the: elevated rates of infectious syphilis among women of child-bearing age, increasing the risk of congenital syphilis; and the concomitant risk of HIV transmission.

For the latest information on the infectious syphilis outbreak, refer to the Department’s website - Infectious syphilis outbreak.

Increases among MSM

Since 2010, increases in notifications of infectious syphilis have been reported in MSM, predominately 20-39 years of age, residing in urban areas of Victoria (VIC) and NSW.

Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD)

The number of cases of IMD due to serogroup W and serogroup Y has been increasing across most jurisdictions in Australia. The Australian Government Department of Health, in collaboration with the states and territories, is closely monitoring the incidence of IMD in Australia. For the latest information on IMD, refer to the Department’s website.

Pneumococcal disease (invasive)

Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were around 45% higher over the past quarter (n=719), when compared to the quarterly rolling 5 year mean (n=492.2). Notifications of IPD consistently increase and peak over the winter months and tend to correlate with the winter influenza seasons. The unexpectedly higher levels of IPD observed over the past quarter may potentially have been influenced by the increased seasonal influenza activity levels that have also been observed over this period. A more detailed analysis of IPD notification trends in Australia up to 30 June 2017 is available in the IPD quarterly report.

Hepatitis A

There have been 63 notifications of hepatitis A in the last quarter, which is 2.2 times the quarterly rolling 5 year mean (37.2). Of these, 11 notifications occurred in the last fortnight, compared to 9 in the previous fortnight, and 3 in the same fortnight in 2016. Of these, 7 were reported to have acquired their infection in Australia, (3 Victoria, 2 New South Wales, and 2 South Australia) and 5/7 identified as men who have sex with men. NSW Health continues to investigate a previously reported outbreak of hepatitis A in Sydney and surrounding areas, with 28 confirmed cases as of 17 November 2017, 15 of whom identify as men who have sex with men.


Interpretative Notes

Selected diseases are chosen each fortnight based on either exceeding two standard deviations from the 90 day and/or 365 day five year rolling mean or other disease issues of significance identified during the reporting period. All diseases reported are analysed by notification receive date. Data are extracted each Monday of a CDNA week.

Totals comprise data from all States and Territories. Cumulative figures are subject to retrospective revision so there may be discrepancies between the number of new notifications and the increment in the cumulative figure from the previous period.

  1. The past quarter (90 day) surveillance period includes the date range 20/08/2017 to 17/11/2017.
  2. The quarterly (90 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 90 days up to 17/11/2016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past quarter (90 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.
  3. The past year (365 day) surveillance period includes the date range 18/11/2016 to 17/11/2017.
  4. The yearly (365 day) five year rolling mean is the average of 5 intervals of 365 days up to 17/112016. The ratio is the notification activity in the past year (365 days) compared with the five year rolling mean for the same period.

The five year rolling mean and the ratio of notifications compared with the five year rolling mean should be interpreted with caution. Changes in surveillance practice, diagnostic techniques and reporting may contribute to increases or decreases in the total notifications received over a five year period. Ratios are to be taken as a crude measure of current disease activity and may reflect changes in reporting rather than changes in disease activity.


Table of communicable disease notifications reported to the NNDSS for this fortnight

Please use the scroll bar located at the end of the table below to view all columns.

A copy of the table of communicable disease notifications for this fortnight is also included in the PDF printable version of the NNDSS report.

Notifications of Nationally Notifiable Diseases for the period 04/11/2017 to 17/11/2017

Footnotes:

* Ratio of the 90 day prior surveillance period to the past 90 day 5 year rolling mean, or ratio of the 365 day prior surveillance period to the 365 day 5 year rolling mean.

NN = Not Notifiable, NEC = Not Elsewhere Classified

Dates used are:

  • Past Quarter (90d prior surveillance period): 20/08/2017 to 17/11/2017
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean):
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 1: 20/08/2016 to 17/11/2016
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 2: 20/08/2015 to 17/11/2015
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 3: 20/08/2014 to 17/11/2014
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 4: 20/08/2013 to 17/11/2013
  • Quarterly rolling 5Yr Mean (90d 5Yr Mean) 5: 20/08/2012 to 17/11/2012
  • Past year (365d prior surveillance period): 18/11/2017 to 17/11/2017
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean):
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 1: 19/11/2015 to 17/11/2016
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 2: 18/11/2014 to 17/11/2015
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 3: 18/11/2013 to 17/11/2014
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 4: 18/11/2012 to 17/11/2013
  • Yearly rolling 5Yr Mean (365d 5Yr Mean) 5: 19/11/2011 to 17/11/2012
  State or Territory Totals for Australia Historical 90 Day Period Historical 365 Day Period
Disease ACT NSW NT QLD SA TAS VIC WA This
Reporting
Period
Previous
Reporting
Period
Same
Reporting
Period
Last Year
2017 YTD Past
Quarter
Quarterly
Rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
Quarter
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Quarterly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Past
Year
Yearly
rolling
5 year
mean
Ratio
Past
year
/5 year
mean
Exceeds
Yearly
rolling
mean +2
SD by
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (newly acquired) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 3 119 24 39.2 0.6 - 137 157.6 0.9 -
Hepatitis B (unspecified) 1 91 0 27 0 4 41 19 183 216 206 5,280 1,444 1,643.0 0.9 - 5,936 6,375.0 0.9 -
Hepatitis C (newly acquired) 0 1 0 14 0 0 1 4 20 27 29 556 164 188.6 0.9 - 644 708.6 0.9 -
Hepatitis C (unspecified) 5 127 9 105 2 8 53 36 345 405 469 8,949 2,413 2,562.8 0.9 - 10,266 10,193.4 1.0 -
Hepatitis D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 49 17 12.2 1.4 - 58 55.0 1.1 -
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 1.6 0.0 -
Campylobacteriosis 15 NN 12 337 97 23 205 160 1,168 1,236 968 21,879 6,504 4,953.8 1.3 - 25,357 20,936.4 1.2 -
Cryptosporidiosis  -    12 2 19 4 4 27 8 76 73 115 4,421 495 446.0 1.1 - 4,972 4,075.6 1.2 -
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 13 4 4.2 1.0 - 18 17.0 1.1 -
Hepatitis A 0 3 0 0 2 0 5 1 11 9 3 164 63 37.2 1.7 0.8 187 186.4 1.0 -
Hepatitis E 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 52 11 6.2 1.8 - 55 44.8 1.2 -
Listeriosis 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 3 1 64 17 17.4 1.0 - 78 79.0 1.0 -
Paratyhoid 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 2 3 49 8 11.0 0.7 - 60 74.0 0.8 -
STEC 0 0 0 0 13 0 2 1 16 21 21 417 114 52.8 2.2 - 489 238.2 2.1 114.9
Salmonellosis 5 125 24 140 41 7 111 82 535 606 498 14,773 2,951 2,765.0 1.1 - 16,832 16,000.2 1.1 -
Shigellosis 0 5 19 10 4 0 18 9 65 77 55 1,502 437 201.6 2.2 45.9 1,667 1,111.4 1.5 -
Typhoid Fever 0 2 0 1 0 0 3 1 7 3 4 122 24 22.8 1.1 - 138 123.6 1.1 -
Quarantinable diseases
Avian influenza in humans (AIH) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Cholera 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0.6 1.7 - 1 1.8 0.6 -
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Plague 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection 66 1,019 69 867 207 2 2 431 2,663 2,949 3,300 76,477 18,008 20,544.8 0.9 - 86,020 85,875.6 1.0 -
Donovanosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Gonococcal infection 9 287 51 193 48 5 171 107 871 1,058 991 25,181 6,538 4,327.6 1.5 237.8 28,193 20,028.4 1.4 679.6
Syphilis < 2 years 1 11 14 39 8 0 6 12 91 170 158 3,708 990 601.4 1.6 - 4,106 2,772.4 1.5 -
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration 0 3 4 3 0 0 38 3 51 78 88 1,761 469 447.2 1.0 - 1,978 1,896.0 1.0 -
Syphilis - congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 2.0 1.0 - 7 5.0 1.4 -
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0.8 1.3 - 8 4.0 2.0 0.1
Haemophilus influenzae type b 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 13 5 3.6 1.4 - 16 17.8 0.9 -
Influenza (laboratory confirmed) 20 318 25 557 358 31 276 219 1,804 3,330 2,278 233,488 135,507 34,128.8 4.0 62,666.1 237,637 104,381.6 2.3 72,300.8
Measles 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 84 23 54.0 0.4 - 100 151.6 0.7 -
Mumps 0 7 4 17 1 0 1 1 31 23 16 687 190 106.4 1.8 - 730 510.0 1.4 -
Pertussis 5 182 7 66 70 4 78 53 465 515 936 11,105 2,978 5,067.4 0.6 - 13,764 16,166.8 0.9 -
Pneumococcal disease (invasive) 3 32 1 13 2 3 23 6 83 84 71 1,900 719 492.2 1.5 112.6 2,079 1,665.4 1.2 165.4
Poliovirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Rotavirus NN 82 1 62 93 5 NN 15 NN NN NN 6,248 3,076 N/A N/A 916.6 6,641 N/A N/A 1,855.3
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 1 4.6 0.2 - 12 17.8 0.7 -
Rubella congenital 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 0.0 - 0 0.8 0.0 -
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0.8 0.0 - 5 4.4 1.1 -
Varicella zoster (chickenpox) 7 NN 1 9 15 0 27 41 100 131 166 2,627 829 683.8 1.2 - 3,152 2,516.8 1.3 -
Varicella zoster (shingles) 6 NN 11 0 69 7 65 53 211 325 326 7,439 2,041 1,445.2 1.4 - 8,502 6,457.2 1.3 -
Varicella zoster (unspecified) 8 NN 0 301 56 13 195 101 674 753 659 15,568 4,303 3,152.0 1.4 150.3 17,453 13,666.4 1.3 -
Vectorborne diseases
Barmah Forest virus infection 0 2 0 13 0 0 0 1 16 20 8 398 94 275.6 0.3 - 437 1,335.0 0.3 -
Chikungunya virus infection 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 4 10 13 81 29 23.2 1.3 - 105 110.2 1.0 -
Dengue virus infection 0 10 0 1 0 0 0 3 14 33 53 939 147 271.8 0.5 - 1,096 1,709.2 0.6 -
Flavivirus unspecified (unspecified) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 14 1 6.2 0.2 - 24 35.2 0.7 -
Japanese encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.4  -    - 1 1.8 0.6 -

Malaria

1 1 0 5 0 1 0 0 8 22 14 328 92 75.0 1.2 - 363 331.2 1.1 -
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0  -  - 0 0.4  -    -
Ross River virus infection 0 7 2 34 3 0 4 20 70 92 58 7,144 548 732.2 0.7 - 7,643 5,973.0 1.3 -
West Nile/Kunjin virus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0.4 7.5 1.5 6 2.2 3.2 3.4
Zoonoses
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Australian bat lyssavirus infection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.2 0.0 -
Brucellosis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 14 2 5.0 0.4 - 16 17.8 0.9 -
Leptospirosis 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 2 4 124 19 16.8 1.1 - 137 101.4 1.4 -
Lyssavirus infecton (NEC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 16 4 11.4 0.4 - 20 31.2 0.6 -
Q fever 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 6 9 24 413 75 124.6 0.6 - 492 511.8 1.0 -
Tularaemia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 - 0 0.0 0.0 -
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis 0 8 0 2 3 0 8 5 26 20 21 344 99 112.4 0.9  -  386 412.4 0.9  - 
Leprosy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 6 2 3.6 0.6  -  9 13.2 0.7  - 
Meningococcal disease (invasive) 0 2 2 1 1 3 4 4 17 20 16 352 157 63.6 2.5 50.9 378 223.2 1.7 77.3
Tuberculosis 0 17 1 8 3 0 6 8 43 72 62 1,203 364 359.4 1.0  -  1,394 1,320.6 1.1  - 
Totals 153 2,361 259 2,855 1,100 120 1,374 1,406 9,689 12,409 11,647 456,106 192,006        489,805       
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