Declaration of Berlin from MINEPS V (UNESCO)

Page last updated: 30 October 2013

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Declaration of Berlin

The Ministers meeting at the 5th International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials Responsible for Physical Education and Sport (MINEPS V), held in Berlin (28–30 May 2013),

1. Reaffirming the fundamental principles enshrined in UNESCO's International Charter of Physical Education and Sport and in the Olympic Charter;
2. Recalling resolution 67/17, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 28 November 2012, which recognizes the potential of sport to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, sustainable development and peace;
3. Mindful of international Human Rights instruments, including the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education, and the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport;
4. Reaffirming that every individual must have the opportunity to access, and participate in sport as a fundamental right regardless of ethnic origin, gender, age, impairment, cultural and social background, economic resources, gender identity, or sexual orientation;
5. Recognizing the unique potential of sport to foster social inclusion;
6. Stressing the importance of prevention and awareness raising in safeguarding the intrinsic values of sport and fostering its socio-economic benefits;
7. Underlining the crucial role of continued quality education and training for physical education and sport teachers and coaches;
8. Concerned with the failure of many countries to close the gap between physical education and sport policy commitments and their implementation;
9. Acknowledging the diversity of priorities and objectives that determine the allocation of resources to physical education and sport programmes by governments;
10. Recognizing that participation in, bidding for, and hosting of major sport events are policy options to achieve sport related socio-economic benefits;
11.  Aware of the commercial and economic dimensions of sport;
12. Highlighting that impact-oriented physical education and sport policy must be developed by all concerned stakeholders, including national administrations for sport, education, youth, and health; inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations; sport federations and athletes; as well as the private sector and the media;
13. Being aware that due to the involvement of transnational organized crime, doping in sport,  the manipulation of sport competitions and corruption are not only a threat to sport itself but to society at large;
14. Affirming that various national and international authorities and stakeholders need to concert their efforts in order to combat threats to the integrity of sport through doping, corruption and the manipulation of sport competitions, and that  Sport Ministers play a leadership role in federating these efforts;
15. Emphasizing the need for further research, evidence-based policy and knowledge sharing at national, regional  and international levels;

Affirm the following, based on a worldwide consultation with experts, the Sport Movement and UNESCO's Intergovernmental Committee for Physical Education and Sport:1

16. We call upon Member States to redouble efforts to implement existing international agreements and instruments, as they relate to physical education and sport, to meet the recommendations of previous MINEPS conferences, and to commit to the action oriented recommendations presented in the following Annex.
17. We invite the Director-General of UNESCO to present the Declaration of Berlin and its Annex to the 37th session of the UNESCO General Conference, together with proposals for practical follow-up and monitoring, developed in collaboration with the Intergovernmental Committee for Physical Education and Sport (CIGEPS).
18. We call upon  CIGEPS to include in its work programme other important issues concerning physical education and sport that could not be addressed sufficiently by this edition of MINEPS  including, inter alia, various manifestations of violence in connection with sport.
19. We also invite the Director-General of UNESCO to consider a revision of UNESCO's International Charter of Physical Education and Sport, to reflect our findings and recommendations.

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Commission I—Specific Commitments and Recommendations

1.1 Highlighting that physical education is a an essential entry point for children to a learn life skills, develop patterns for lifelong physical activity participation and health life style behaviours;
1.2 Noting that physical education in school and in all other educational institutions is the most effective means of providing all children and youth with the skills, attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding for lifelong participation in society;
1.3 Emphasizing the need for Child Safeguarding in all physical education and sport programmes;
1.4 Recognizing that an inclusive environment free of violence, sexual harassment, racism and other forms of discrimination is fundamental to quality physical education and sport;
1.5 Underlining that traditional sports and games, as part of intangible heritage and as an expression of the cultural diversity of our societies, offer opportunities for  increased  participation in and through sport;
1.6 Highlighting the importance of gender mainstreaming that is guided by the concepts of diversity, freedom of choice and empowerment, when undertaking efforts to increase the participation of girls and women in and through sport;
1.7 Stressing that participation in and through sport also entails including women in sport organizations and decision-making positions;
1.8 Stressing the paradigm shifts in policy concerning persons with disabilities, from a deficit-orientated approach to a strength-based one, as well as from a medical model to a social one;
1.9 Emphasizing the important role of education, awareness raising and the media in promoting athletes with disabilities as role models;
1.10 Being Aware that in many countries physical education and sport do not offer girls and women with disabilities the chance to positively influence their sport behaviours across the life span, and that in many countries girls and women with disabilities face multiple barriers to accessing  sport; 
1.11 Observing persisting inequalities in sport participation, which mirror those in education, health and wealth distribution, reflect barriers in the provision of inclusive physical education and sport policy, such as inadequate infrastructure and prohibitive costs;
1.12 Highlighting that participation in sport is a result of numerous individual and environmental factors, including cultural beliefs, stereotyping, stigmatization and discrimination;

We, the Ministers, are committed to:

1.13 Place emphasis on the inclusion of all members of society when developing physical education, sport for all and high-performance sport policy;
1.14 Ensure physical education activities are provided in accordance with the UN Conventions on the Rights of the Child and on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities;
1.15 Ensure that quality and inclusive physical education classes are included, preferentially on a daily basis, as a mandatory part of primary and secondary education and that sport and physical activity at school and in all other educational institutions play an integral role in the daily routine of children and youth;
1.16 Strengthen cooperation between governments, sport organizations, schools and all other educational institutions to improve the conditions for physical education and sport at school, including sports facilities and equipment, as well as qualified teachers and coaches;
1.17 Foster the important role of inclusive extracurricular school sport in early development and educating children and youth;
1.18 Provide opportunities for traditional sport and games as a means for wider inclusion.

We, the Ministers, call upon all stakeholders to:

1.19 Utilize the volunteer potential of sport to strengthen the broad-based anchoring of sport in school and in all other educational institutions;
1.20 Review sport governance to embrace inclusion criteria and ensure equal opportunities to participate in and through sport at all levels;
1.21 Engage civil society organizations and researchers to provide a systematic analysis of the synergies between inclusion policy and sport governance procedures and practice ;
1.22 Provide a safe and accessible environment for physical education and extracurricular sport in school and in all other educational institutions in which the existence of all forms of discrimination including sexual harassment are recognized and consequently punished;
1.23 Commit to reducing attitudinal, social and physical barriers and promote inclusion by raising awareness of the rights and abilities of all children and adolescents through education and the media and by challenging stereotypes and sharing positive examples;
1.24 Develop training of teachers, instructors and coaches to deliver inclusive and adapted physical activity programmes, including training and employment opportunities for persons with disabilities, as well as additional support for persons with specific needs;
1.25 Ensure, in accordance with national law, appropriate facilities, equipment and dress options taking into account  both ability and cultural specificities, particularly for women and girls;

Develop organizational conditions to increase the presence of women in sport bodies and decision making positions, including, inter alia,

  1. tie funds to achieving outcomes for women;
  2. mentorship programmes and incentive actions such as awards promoting the principles of gender mainstreaming and diversity management;

Develop education and awareness raising initiatives that are supportive and respectful of inclusion and diversity, such as:

  1. the promotion of media coverage and attention to disadvantaged groups on an equal level with all others;
  2. drawing on good practice examples from major sport events and national media campaigns regarding participation of athletes with disabilities, as well as tolerant inclusion rules;

Integrate the following considerations in national action plans:

  1. Tie funds to achieving outcomes for people with disabilities and people from excluded groups;
  2. professional training of teachers, coaches and sport leaders through standardized study programmes and certification courses;
  3. appropriate and adequate volumes of equipment, that meet safety regulations;
  4. adequate numbers of support personnel and  volunteers;
  5. accessibility of sport facilities, including information in easy-to-understand-language or in Braille, and provision for sign-language interpreting;
  6. accessible, affordable transport options to and from sporting activities;
1.29 Consider the opportunity of inclusive sport competitions.

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Commission II—Promoting investment in physical education and sport programmes

2.1 Being aware that increasing levels of physical inactivity in many countries have major implications for the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and the general health of the global population;
2.2 Stressing that a national strategic vision for physical education and sport is a prerequisite for balancing and optimizing the impact of national sport policy options and priorities; <
2.3 Highlighting that sustained investment in quality physical education is not a policy option but a fundamental component of all countries' sport philosophy and that allocations of budgets should not be re-directed away from public provision of physical education programmes;
2.4 Emphasizing that scientific evidence, policy instruments and quality assurance mechanisms enhance the  efficacy and sustainability of physical education and sport policy;
2.5 Recognizing the opportunity to engage children and youth through targeted sport programmes designed to reinforce positive human values and behaviour, and to contribute to a reduction of sedentary lifestyles, crime, violence, drug abuse, HIV/AIDS infection and early pregnancies amongst other things;
2.6 Stressing the importance and positive contributions of volunteers and civil society to sport systems and to  participants;
2.7 Acknowledging the growing importance of the sport industry and its role in economic development;
2.8 Noting the increasing significance of private sector support for physical education and sport;
2.9 Acknowledging the public interest in major sport events;
2.10 Being aware that major sport events are subject to continually increasing financial, technical and political requirements that may act as a disincentive to bid for major sport events and risk excluding certain countries from the bidding for or hosting of such events;
2.11 Taking note of evidence that the hosting of major sport events may have tangible and intangible benefits for the host country's society and economy at large;
2.12 Recognizing the importance of anticipating the sustainable socio-economic impact of major sport events for different beneficiary groups in the host countries, including local residents;
2.13 Stressing the importance of increasing the positive effects of major sport events in terms of participation in and through sport, creating new sport programmes and providing new and/or improved sports facilities;
2.14 Recognizing that, when hosting major sport events, the social, economic, cultural and environmental dimension of sustainability must be taken into account by all involved parties including local populations;
2.15 Acknowledging the data which shows that many oversized stadia are not financially viable post-events (while generating maintenance costs);
2.16 Noting the trend of increasingly competitive bids and overbidding, i.e. incurring higher costs than necessary in order to outbid competitors, by countries wishing to host major sport events, and a corresponding escalation of hosting costs, which are frequently underestimated in ex-ante studies;
2.17 Recognizing that political and financial support by the public sector, and its early involvement, are prerequisites for the organisation of major sport events as of the bidding stage;
2.18 Recognizing that participation in the bidding process for hosting a major sport event and the related international exposure can act as a catalyst for sustainable national development, improved cooperation of different societal groups and identity building;
2.19 Emphasizing the importance of transparent community participation in the bidding and implementation process for major sport events to avoid undesired changes in the living environment of local residents,  including the displacement of local populations and subsequent gentrification;


We, the Ministers, are committed to:

2.20 Develop national sport, education, health and youth policies to reflect scientific evidence concerning the socio-economic benefits of physical education and sport, and to share accordingly good practice among  countries;
2.21 Consider the funding of physical education and sport programmes as a safe investment that will result in positive socio-economic outcomes;
2.22 Invest in community development and in accessible infrastructure to  encourage physical activity;
2.23 Support the establishment of alliances involving all concerned stakeholders, including public authorities, city planners, parents, teachers, sport and cultural organizations, coaches and athletes to develop a national vision and priorities for physical education and sport programmes/policy;
2.24 Strengthen the role of national,regional and local professional and grassroots associations in delivery and quality assurance of physical education and sport programs;
2.25 Ensure that a comprehensive sport infrastructure policy is developed which provides for quality assurance in physical education and sport; 
2.26 Support and further the work carried out by WHO, and other United Nations entities, on the importance of physical activity, notably in the prevention of non-communicable diseases;
2.27 Treat major sport events as an integral part of national physical education and sport planning, ensuring that other programmes do not suffer from budget shifts in favour of the implementation of major sport events or of high-performance sport;
2.28 Commit, when hosting major sports events, to the sustainability of sport infrastructure for physical education, sport for all and high-performance sport and other community activities, in order to ensure that all concerned stakeholders can participate in and benefit from such events;
2.29 Develop a consistent policy setting out the conditions for planning and implementing major and mega sport events as well as for participating in related bidding procedures;

We, the Ministers, call upon all stakeholders to:

2.30 Support the development of common methodologies to measure the socio-economic impact of physical education and sport e.g. through satellite accounts for sport;
2.31 Share comparable data on the socio-economic benefits of physical education and sport, as well as good practices of successful physical education and sport programmes;
2.32 Design sport programmes cautiously in order to achieve the desired outcomes and to avoid poor-quality sport programmes harming rather than benefiting participants;
2.33 Improve initial and continued professional development for teachers responsible for providing physical education;
2.34 Foster the development of a variety of physical education and sport-related career pathways;
2.35 Support transfer of know-how for local production of physical education and sport equipment; 
2.36 Leverage major sport events as platforms to raise awareness on societal issues and for opportunities for cultural exchange;
2.37 Integrate the transparent participation in, bidding for and hosting of major sport events into national sport development planning, in order to ensure that such events support physical education, grass-roots and sport for all programmes and do not result in cuts of public spending for such programmes;
2.38 Commit to a voluntary code of conduct for all parties involved in the bidding process and in the hosting of major sport events;
2.39 Ensure that investment in infrastructure and facilities for major sport events complies with social, economic, cultural and environmental requirements, notably through the reuse of existing facilities, the design of new venues for ease of dismantling or downsizing, and the use of temporary facilities;
2.40 Ensure an effective knowledge transfer between past and potential host countries concerning opportunities and risks associated with hosting major sport events;
2.41 Consider smaller-scale competitions and co-hosting of major sport events by more than one city or nation;
2.42 Support the preparation for and participation in major sport events by teams from least developed countries;
2.43 Publish decisive criteria for awarding the hosting of major sport events by all international sports organizations , in order to enhance transparency;
2.44 Engage in further scientific research which includes long-term post-event studies, as well as studies concerning the measurement of intangible impacts and the establishment of an internationally uniform cost benefit analysis.

We, the Ministers, call upon owners of sport events to:

2.45 Identify areas where the financial, technical and political requirements for major sport events could be scaled down to encourage countries to bid, and allow more countries to host such events, without jeopardizing national priorities and sustainability objectives;
2.46 Ensure an open, inclusive and transparent process in the bidding for and hosting of major sport events with a view to reinforcing accountability for all stakeholders involved;
2.47 Prioritize, through bidding requirements for major sport events, all aspects of sustainability and accessibility throughout the planning and staging of such events;

Ensure enhanced opportunities for countries to reap the socio-economic benefits of major sport events, notably by considering the following measures:

  1. maximum cost limits for bids;
  2. maximum capacity limits of new facilities;
  3. ensuring that the host country's financial liability, including financial guarantees, investments and risks, is limited and does not have a negative impact on the economic development of the host country and city;
  4. publication of decisive criteria for awarding the hosting of major sport events by all international sports organizations, in order to enhance transparency;
  5. prioritizing, in the assessment of bids, candidates' plans for reducing environmental stress, avoiding post event costs, and fostering social development

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Commission III—Preserving the Integrity of Sport

3.1 Recognizing that the global prestige of sport depends primarily on upholding core values such as fair play, achievement by merit, and uncertainty of the outcome of competitions;
3.2 Reaffirming that public authorities are also responsible for promoting the values of sport as part of realizing and spreading the benefits of sport to individuals and communities;
3.3 Noting that the autonomy of sport organizations is closely linked to their primary responsibility for the integrity of sport and  the compliance with the general principles and international standards of good governance;
3.4 Recognizing that the Sport Movement alone cannot successfully prevent and fight doping in sport and the manipulation of sport competitions, particularly when corruption and  transnational organized crime are involved;
3.5 Recognizing that the integrity of sport is threatened by doping in sport, the manipulation of sport competitions and corrupt practices at local, national, regional and international levels;
3.6 Stressing that efforts to protect the integrity of sport will be successful if they are shared by the whole Sport Movement, governments, law enforcement authorities, the betting and other related industries, the media, athletes and their close entourage, and society at large;
3.7 Being aware that, due to its cross-border nature, the manipulation of sport competitions requires a coordinated global response;
3.8 Recognizing the work which has already been done by numerous stakeholders, including notably national governments, national anti-doping agencies, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the European Union, Interpol, Europol, World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), IOC, SportAccord, international and national sport federations as well as the efforts already undertaken at many levels to improve transparency, to recognize and reduce instances of wrongdoing, protect athletes, prepare the young, and promote a sport culture that is clean and fair;
3.9 Being aware that the manipulation of sport competitions combined with betting offers large scale business opportunities and potential revenues for transnational organized crime;
3.10 Stressing that manipulation of sport competitions, including by means of doping, substance enhancement consumption, age fraud and other means, is a global issue, affecting many countries and all levels of sport competitions, that must be fought with significant effort;
3.11 Being convinced that better governance and strong and diverse role models in the Sport Movement can help create an environment in which the manipulation of sport competitions is unlikely, and where the social value of sport is fully realized;
3.12 Recognizing that different betting environments exist across Member States;
3.13 Concerned by the rapid growth of unregulated sport betting, especially through the Internet, and by insufficiently regulated betting markets that attract transnational organized crime;
3.14 Understanding that legal betting operators are dependent on the integrity of sport and have an interest in and share the responsibility for the integrity of the betting market;
3.15 Recognizing that effective and coordinated measures to fight the involvement of transnational organized crime in the manipulation of sport competitions must include measures to both prevent and combat money laundering and corruption in line with the relevant international instruments, particularly the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC);
3.16 Emphasizing that preserving the integrity of sport needs sufficient resources (e.g. financial and personnel) for ensuring effective structures in the fight against doping, corruption and the manipulation of sport competitions with the aim of ensuring global equal opportunities for all sport actors within competitions;


We, the Ministers, are committed to:

3.17  Assume leadership in assessing the nature and scope of threats to the integrity of sport and developing appropriate policy and structures to address these threats at national, regional and international levels;  
3.18 Coordinate, in accordance with national and international law, our approach in the fight against the manipulation of sport competitions, through the sharing of good practice examples, communication and coordination of actions;
3.19 Ensure, in accordance with national and international law, a collaborative, continual, effective and dynamic exchange of information among all stakeholder groups in securing integrity in sport;
3.20 Promote and support the prevention and good governance measures undertaken by the Sport Movement;
3.21 Raise public awareness concerning the risks of doping and corruption in sport, as well as the manipulation of sport competitions;
3.22 Promote interdisciplinary research around the manipulation of sport competitions, particularly in criminal science, sport science, biotechnology, ethics, economics and law and use the results of the scientific research for political consultation, prevention education and public awareness raising;
3.23 Examine the feasibility of establishing national level, independent, integrity organisations and encouraging international coordinated effortsto monitor and address issues relating to corruption.

We call upon UNESCO Member States, in accordance with national and international law, to:

3.24 Commit to giving due importance and funding for investigations of criminal activities taking place in the field of sport;
3.25 Ensure adequate operational capacity to fight the manipulation of sport competitions in law enforcement and juridical authorities;
3.26 Consider the introduction of criminal sanctions which would act as a deterrent against the manipulation of sport competitions, and against doping in sport;
3.27 Thoroughly examine all suspicious cases by using appropriate technology, such as betting monitoring systems, live TV and video coverage;
3.28 Ensure that investigations focus not only on potential manipulators behind the scenes, but also on athletes and their entourage, sport agents, coaches, referees, representatives of associations/clubs and sport federations, including their officials, managers and employees;
3.29 Establish betting regulatory bodies to effectively engage with law enforcement authorities and sport organisations to exchange information and deliver prevention education;
3.30 Develop national and international cooperation between the law enforcement authorities and betting regulators in the fight against manipulation of sport competitions (e.g. mutual legal assistance, joint task forces), involving the Sport Movement and the betting operators;
3.31 Explore the feasibility of creating a public prosecutor's office specialized in sport-related crimes;
3.32 Support the activities of the Council of Europe in developing a possible International Convention against the manipulation of sport competitions;
3.33 Encourage those Member States that are not yet party to UNESCO's International Convention Against Doping in Sport to ratify the Convention and those Member States that are party to the Convention to implement to the greatest extent possible  measures consistent with the Convention to assist in the fight against doping in sport;  
3.34 Acknowledge the work of WADA in establishing and maintaining a framework of internationally harmonized anti-doping arrangements across the world;
3.35 Endorse the current regulatory and other roles of WADA in leading the fight against doping in sport;
3.36 Acknowledge the importance of investigations and intelligence gathering as an essential tool in the fight against doping;


We, the Ministers, call upon all stakeholders to:

3.37 Collaborate in the early detection of manipulation through developing preventive measures and monitoring methods in accordance with national and international law.
3.38 Establish and maintain, in accordance with national and international law, ongoing communication and cooperation with government and law enforcement authorities in the fight against doping, corruption in sport and manipulation of sport competitions;

We, the Ministers, call upon the Sport Movement to:

3.39 Establish or reinforce transparent, democratic decision-making structures to enhance integrity, accountability, equal treatment and sustainability;
3.40 Institute a consistent and disciplined zero-tolerance policy, especially against doping and the manipulation of sport competitions, as well as an effective, proportionate disciplinary regulation;

Implement prevention measures against the manipulation of sport competitions, which include:

  1. comprehensive education programs, in particular face-to-face-training targeted at athletes and also involving their close entourage, sport agents, coaches, referees, representatives of the associations/clubs and the sport federations;
  2. the appointment of ombudsmen, respected by the relevant target groups, as well as integrity officers at the national and international levels;
  3. enforceable Codes of Conduct, committed to fair play and ethical standards (e.g. prohibition on betting one's own sport or delivering insider information);
  4. amnesty or incentive measures for persons helping to achieve legal action or prosecution;
  5. adequate systems for encouraging  and protecting whistle-blowers, and for managing suspicious information so as to grant priority to prevention;
  6. immediate replay and review mechanisms, and transparent scoring systems for sports  judged by point systems;
  7. strict policies for referee announcement timeframes and referee-athlete interactions prior to competitions;
  8. integrity agreements with legal betting operators that outline details on the provision of betting services and information sharing protocols, in accordance with national and international law;

Adopt binding good governance rules, which include:

  1. measures to strengthen democratic structures and transparency at the level of federations and associations/clubs; individual actors, including sponsors and investors, must not use their influence to undermine the  integrity of sport;
  2. reliable and sound management of financial affairs (including salary payment according to work contract provisions);
3.43 Work with national member federations to apply standardized regulations under sport rules to combat doping in sport, manipulation of sport competitions and corruption (e.g. a code of conduct);

Implement effective and enforceable regulations that are proportionate, clear and binding and include:

  1. obligations e.g. a zero-tolerance procedure in enforcing suspicious cases and rules concerning the reporting of suspicious cases to law-enforcement authorities; these rules should be capable of being applied and enforced and should contain clear responsibilities, and;
  2. deterrent sanctions e.g. suspensions, ineligibility, fines etc.

We, the Ministers, call upon UNESCO to:

3.45 Cooperate with governmental and non-governmental organizations and institutions to develop an international prevention programme to preserve the integrity of sport, with a focus on training and education;
3.46 Support the exchange of good practices and expert advice, as well as methodologies in the fight against the manipulation of sport competitions and against doping in sport.

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Below you will find a glossary of technical terms used throughout the declaration and its annexes.  As many of the terms do not have universally agreed definitions the following are subject to discussion and further evolution.

Adapted Physical Activity is understood as having a central focus on individual differences in physical activity that require special attention. Adaptation involves modification, adjustment, or accommodation in accordance with assessment data. Individual differences include impairments, disabilities, handicaps and other special needs as delineated by various governing bodies. *Source: IFAPA website-

Athlete is understood as sportsmen and sportswomen participating in organized sports activities, their support personnel and sports officials as well as anyone taking part in the activities of sports organizations in any role, including the owners of sports organizations.

Autonomy of  sport organizations refers to the fundamental principles of Olympism within the Olympic Charter (Nr. 2.5) which recognizes that sport organizations shall have the rights and obligations of autonomy, which include freely establishing and controlling the rules of sport, determining the structure and governance of their organizations, enjoying the right of elections free from any outside influence and the responsibility for ensuring that principles of good governance in accordance with national and international law. *Source: parts taken from Olympic Charter, 2011.

Child Safeguarding The actions we take to ensure all children are safe from harm and violence when involved in sport and play clubs and activities, to ensure safe environments.

Corruption in Sport is understood as any illegal, immoral or unethical activity that attempts to deliberately distort the result of a sporting contest for the personal material gain of one or more parties involved in that activity. *Source: Gorse & Chadwick, 2013.

Disability: the social model of disability counters the medical model of disability and maintains that disability results from interactions between an individual with specific physical, intellectual, sensory or mental health impairment and the surrounding social and cultural environment, rather than from the impairment itself. Disability is therefore understood to be the result of the attitudinal, environmental and institutional barriers that inherently exist within society systematically exclude and discriminate against people with disabilities. *Source: UNICEF, Working Paper on Using the Human Rights Framework to Promote the Rights of Children with Disabilities, September 2012.

Entourage is understood as all people associated with athletes, including, without limitation, managers, agents, coaches, physical trainers, medical staff, scientists, sports organizations, sponsors, lawyers and any person promoting the athlete sporting career, including family members. *Source: IOC Entourage Commission.

Heath is understood as state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. * Source World Health Organization.

High-performance sport (also referred to as elite sport) is understood as structured, competitive sport requiring specific training and resources towards international performance standards.

Inclusion is understood as a sense of belonging, which includes feeling respected, valued for who you are, feeling a level of supportive energy and commitment from others. There should be commitment to embrace difference and value the contributions of all participants, whatever their characteristics or backgrounds. *Source: parts from Miller and Katz, 2002.

Insider Information is understood as any information relating to any competition or event that a person possesses by virtue of his/her position towards athletes and/or competitions. Such information includes, but is not limited to, factual information regarding the competitors, the conditions, tactical considerations or any other aspect of the competition or event but does not include such information that is already published or a matter of public record, readily acquired by an interested member of the public, or disclosed according to the rules and regulations governing the relevant competition or event. *Source: Council of Europe, 2011.

Major Sports Events are understood as a sport event with a large number of spectators, national and/or international media attention.

Manipulation of Sport Competitions means an arrangement of an irregular alteration of the course or the result of a sporting competition or any of its particular events (such as matches, races) in order to obtain an advantage for oneself or for others and to remove all or part of the uncertainty normally associated with the results of a competition. *Source: Council of Europe, 2011.

Mega Sport Events are the largest major sports events, which attract global attention and investment (e.g. Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, FIFA World Cup, UEFA EURO, Commonwealth Games, Asian Games).

'National' is used for the purposes of this Declaration, to describe governmental strategy and action at decision-making and policy level. Hence in federal structures, this may be applied to provincial, state or regional government administrations.

Physical Activity: is understood as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. *Source: World Health Organization.

Physical Education is understood as an area of the school curriculum concerned with human movement, physical fitness and health.  It focuses on developing physical competence so that all children can move efficiently, effectively and safely and understand what they are doing, which is essential for their full development, achievement and for lifelong participation in physical activity. *Source: Parts from ICSSPE Position Statement on Physical Education, 2010.

Safe Spaces are understood as secure threat-free environments that are stimulating, supportive and inclusive. *Source: parts from UNICEF, Child Friendly Spaces, 2009.

Socially Excluded Groups are understood to be those constrained by structural inequalities or domination by particular cultures, elites or institution practices preventing them from full participation in physical activity.  Varying by region, excluded groups may include women and girls,  persons with disabilities, ethnic minorities, those of different sexual orientation, those facing poverty, the elderly, and in some cases youth. 

Social Inclusion is understood as the process by which efforts are made to ensure equal opportunities - that everyone, regardless of their background, can achieve their full potential in life. Such efforts include policies and actions that promote equal access to (public) services as well as enabling citizen participation in the decision-making processes that affect their lives. Source: UN Division for Social Policy and Development

Sport is understood as all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction.  These include play; recreation; organized, casual or competitive sport; and indigenous sports and games. *Source: UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development & Peace, 2003.

Sport Betting is understood as all sport betting-based games that involve wagering a stake with a monetary value in games in which participants may win, in full or in part, a monetary prize based, totally or partially, on chance or uncertainty of outcome (namely, fixed and running odds, totalisator games, live betting, betting exchange, spread betting and other games offered by sports betting operators), in particular:

  1. Legal betting: all types of betting that are allowed on a specific territory or jurisdiction (e.g. by license given by a regulator or recognition of licenses given by the regulator of a third country);
  2. Illegal betting: all types of betting that are not allowed in a specific territory or jurisdiction;
  3. Irregular betting: all types of betting where irregularities and abnormalities in the bets placed or the event upon which the bets are placed can be identified.   Source: Council of Europe, 2011

Sport for All is understood as sport and physical activity directed towards the entire population, including people of all ages, both sexes, and different social and economic conditions to promote health and social benefits of regular physical activity. *Source: IOC Sport for All Commission.

Sport Movement is understood as all individuals, institutions, clubs and organizations supporting the participant, growth and development of sport.

Sport Satellite Accounts (SSA)  are understood as a method of filtering National Accounts for sport relevant activities to extract all sport-related value added while maintaining its structure. The instrument of SSAs permits all sport-related economic activities to show up explicitly, rather than keeping them concealed in deeply disaggregated (low-level) classifications of the National Accounts. The remaining part of the National Accounts does no longer contain any sport-related value added. Together with the value added covered by the SSA it equals the figures of the original National Accounts.*Source: Council of Europe, 2011

Stakeholders in Access to Sport are understood as national governments, the sport movement, UN and inter-governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the media.

Stakeholders in Investment in Sport are understood as all involved parties, especially national governments, the sport movement, UN and inter-governmental agencies, sponsors and corporate entities, non-governmental organizations. 

Stakeholders in Sport Integrity are understood as national governments, law enforcement institutions, national anti-doping agencies and laboratories, WADA, Sport Movement (e.g. International and national sport federations, athletes and their entourage), betting regulators, betting operators,  supporters, sponsors, media, as well as non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Supporters are understood as fans, spectators or other persons who are enthusiastically devoted to a kind of sport, a sport-club, an organization or an athlete and who support the development of this related sport.

Values of Sport refers to the sport movement's core values, beliefs and principles centered on fair play, respect, honesty, friendship and excellency. It is the responsibility of sport organizations to uphold and protect these values. *Source: parts taken from Olympic Charter, 2011.

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1 Please see the Glossary for the technical terms used in this Declaration and its Annex.

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