The health and psychological consequences of cannabis use - chapter 5

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN RESCINDED: A list of References used in chapter 5.

Page last updated: 1994

Please note the information in this publication may no longer be current but is retained on our website for historical or research purposes.

<< Previous Chapter | Contents | Next Chapter>>

5. The accute effects of cannabis intoxication


Andreasson, S. and Allebeck, P. (1990) Cannabis and mortality among young men: A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 18, 9-15.

Belgrave, B. E., Bird, K. D., Chesher, G. B., Jackson, D. M., Lubbe, K. E., Starmer, G. A. & Teo, R. K. C. (1979) The effect of (-) trans-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, alone and in combination with ethanol, on human performance. Psychopharmacology, 62, 53-60.

Block, R. I. & Wittenborn, J. R. (1984) Marijuana effects on semantic memory: verification of common and uncommon category members. Psychological Reports, 55, 503-512.

Block, R. I. & Wittenborn, J. R., (1986) Marijuana effects on the speed of memory retrieval in the letter-matching task. International Journal of Addiction, 21, 281-285.

Blum, K. (1984) Handbook of Abusable Drugs. New York: Gardner Press.

Borg, J, Gershon, S. & Alpert, M. (1975) Dose effects of smoked marihuana on human cognitive and motor functions. Psychopharmacologia, 42, 211-218.

Braden, W., Stillman, R. C. & Wyatt, R. J. (1974) Effects of marihuana on contingent negative variation and reaction time. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 537-541.

Cappell, H. D. & Pliner, P. L. (1973) Volitional control of marijuana intoxication: A study of the ability to "come down" on command. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 428-434.

Carlin, A. S. & Post, R. D. (1971) Patterns of drug use among marijuana smokers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 218, 867-868.

Carlin, A. S., Bakker, C. B., Halpern, L. & Post, R. D. (1972) Social facilitation of ,marijuana intoxication: impact of social set and pharmacological activity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 80, 132-140.

Carlin, A. S., Post, R. D., Bakker, C. B. & Halpern, L. M. (1974) The role of modeling and previous experience in the facilitation of marijuana intoxication. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 159, 275-281.

Top of page

Casswell, S. & Marks, D. F. (1973) Cannabis induced impairment of performance of a divided attention task. Nature (London), 241, 60.

Chait, L. D., Corwin, R. L. & Johanson, C. E. (1988) A cumulative dosing procedure for administering marijuana smoke to humans. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 29, 553-557.

Chait, L. D., Fischman, M. W. & Schuster, C. R. (1985) Hangover effects the morning after marijuana smoking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 15, 229-238.

Chait, L. D. & Pierri, J. (1992) Effects of smoked marijuana on human performance: A critical review. in A. Murphy & J. Bartke (Eds) Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Chesher, G. B., Franks, H. M., Hensley, V. R., Hensley, W. J., Jackson, D. M., Starmer, G. A. & Teo, R. K. C. (1976) The interaction of ethanol and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Effects on perceptual, cognitive and motor functions. Medical Journal of Australia, 2, 159-163.

Chesher, G. B., Franks, H. M., Jackson, D. M., Starmer, G. A. & Teo, R. K. C. (1977) Ethanol and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Interactive effects on human perceptual, cognitive and motor functions. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 478-481.

Chesher, G. B., Dauncey, H., Crawford, J. C. & Horn, K. (1986) The interaction of alcohol and marijuana: A dose dependent study of effects on human moods and performance skills. Canberra: Federal Office of Road Safety.

Cimbura, G., Lucas, D.M., Bennet, R.C., Warren, R.A. and Simpson, H.M. (1982) Incidence and toxicological aspects of drugs detected in 484 fatally injured drivers and pedestrians in Ontario. Journal of Forensic Science, 27, 855-867.

Consensus Development Panel (1985) Drug concentrations and driving impairment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 254, 2618-2621.

Consroe, P. F., Jones, B. & Laird, H. (1976) EEG and behavioral effects of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in combination with stimulant drugs in rabbits. Psychopharmacology, 50, 47-52.

Crancer, A. Jr., Dille, J. M., Delay, J. C., Wallace, J. E. & Haykin, M. D. (1969) Comparison of the effects of marihuana and alcohol on simulated driving performance. Science, 163, 851-854.

Dalton, W. S., Martz, R., Lemberger, L., Rodda, B. E. & Forney, R. B. (1975) Effects of marijuana combined with secobarbitol. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 14, 298-304.

Dornbush, R. L., Fink M. & Freedman, A. M. (1971) Marijuana, memory, and perception. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 194-197.

Dott, A. (1972) Effect of marihuana on risk acceptance in a simulated passing task. DHEW Publication HSM-72-10010, Washington: DHEW.

Drew, W. G., Kiplinger, G. F., Miller, L. L. & Marx, M. (1972) Effects of propanolol on marijuana-induced cognitive dysfunctioning. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 13, 526-533.

Top of page

Ellingstad, V., McFarling, L. & Struckman, D. (1973) Alcohol, marijuana and risk-taking. DOT-HS-191-2-301, Vermillion: University of South Dakota,

Evans, M. A., Martz, R., Brown, D. J., Rodda, B. E., Kiplinger, G. F., Lemberger, L. & Forney, R. B. (1973) Impairment of performance with low doses of marihuana. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 14,936-940.

Evans, M. A., Martz, R., Rodda, B. E., Lemberger, L. & Forney, R. B. (1976) Effects of marihuana-dextroamphetamine combination. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20, 350-358.

Forney, R. B., Martz, R., Lemberger, L. & Rodda, B. (1976) The combined effect of marijuana and dextroamphetamine. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 281, 172-170.

Freemon, F. R., Rosenblatt, J. E. & El-Yousef, M. K. (1975) Interaction of physostigmine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 17, 121-126.

Galanter, M., Weingartner, H., Vaughan, T. B., Roth, W. T. & Wyatt, R. J. (1973) 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and natural marijuana. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 278-281

Gieringer, D.H. (1988) Marijuana, driving and accident safety. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 20, 93-101.

Hansteen, R. W., Miller, R. D., Lonero, L., Reid, L. D. & Jones, B. (1976) Effects of cannabis and alcohol on automobile driving and psychomotor tracking. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 282, 240-256.

Hardman, H.F. and Hosko, M.J. (1976) An overview of the cardiovascular-autonomic actions of cannabis. In M Braude and S. Szara (eds) Pharmacology of Marihuana, Volume 1. New York: Raven Press.

Heishman, S. J., Stitzer, M. L. & Bigelow, G. E. (1989) Alcohol and marijuana: comparative dose effect profiles in humans. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 31, 649-655.

Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Mangione, T., Morelock, S. and Mucatel, M. (1982) Teenage driving after using marijuana or drinking and traffic accident involvement. Journal of Safety Research, 13, 33-37.

Hochhauser, M. (1977) Alcohol and marijuana consumption among undergraduate polydrug users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 4, 65-76.

Hollister, L. (1986) Interactions of cannabis with other drugs in man. in M. C. Braude & H. M. Ginzburg (Eds.) Strategies for research on the interactions of drugs of abuse. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Hollister, L. & Gillespie, H. K. (1970) Marihuana, ethanol and dextroamphetamine; mood and mental function alterations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 23, 199-203.

Hollister, L. & Gillespie, H. K. (1975) Interactions in man of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. II. Cannabinol and cannabidiol. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 18, 80-83.

Holman, C.D., Armstrong, B. et al (1988). The Quantification of Drug-Caused Morbidity and Mortality in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Community Services and Health.

Howes, J. F. (1973) Antagonism of the effects of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol by pemoline (CylertR). Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, 6, 901-908.

Howlett, A. C., Bidaut-Russell, M., Devane, W. A., Melvin, L. S., Johnson, M. R. & Herkenham, M. (1990) The cannabinoid receptor: Biochemical, anatomical and behavioral characterization. Trends in Neuroscience, 13, 420-423.

Huber, G.L., Griffith, D.L. and Langsjoen, P.M. (1988) The effects of marihuana on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. National Campaign Against Drug Abuse Monograph Number 7, Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Hurst, P. M., & Bagley, S. K.. (1972) Acute adaptation to the effects of alcohol. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 33, 358-378.

Top of page

Jaffe, J.H. (1985) Drug addiction and drug abuse. In A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman & F. Murad (Eds) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. (7th Edition) USA: Macmillan.

Janowsky, D. S., Meacham, M. P., Blaine, J. D., Schoor, M. & Bozzetti, L. P. (1976) Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 384-388.

Jones, R.T. (1984) Cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids. In D.J. Harvey, W. Paton and G.G. Nahas (eds) Marihuana '84: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. Oxford:IRL Press.

Jones, R. T. (1987) Drug of abuse profile: cannabis. Clinical
Chemistry, 33, 72B-81B.

Johnstone, R. E., Lief, P. L., Kulp, R. A. & Smith, T. C. (1975) Combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol with oxymorphone or pentobarbitol: Effects on ventilatory control and cardiovascular dynamics. Anesthesiology, 42, 674-684.

Karniol, I. G., Shirakawa, I., Kasinski, N., Pfeferman, A. & Carlini, E. A. (1975) Cannabidiol interferes with the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. European Journal of Pharmacology, 28, 172-177.

Kelly, T. H., Foltin, R. W., Emurian, C. S. & Fischman, M. W. (1990) Multidimensional behavioral effects of marijuana. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology, Biology and Psychiatry, 14, 885-902.
Kiplinger, G. F., Manno, J. E., Rodda, B. E., & Forney, R. B. (1971) Dose-response analysis of the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 12, 650-657. Klonoff, H. (1974) Effects of marijuana on driving in a restricted area and on city streets: Driving performance and physiological changes. in L. Miller (Ed.) Marijuana: Effects on Human Behavior, New York: Academic Press.

Klonoff, H., Low, M. & Marcus, A. (1973) Neuropsychological effects of marijuana. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 108, 157-164.

Kudrin, A. N. & Davydova, O. N. (1968) Elimination of hashish effect with phenitrone in dogs. Farmakologiia i Toksikologiia, 31, 549-552.

Leirer, v.-O., Yesavage, J. A. & Morrow, D. G. (1989) Marijuana, aging and task difficulty effects on pilot performance. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 60, 1145-1152.

Leirer, v.-O.,Yesavage, J. A. & Morrow, D. G. (1991) Marijuana carry-over effects on aircraft pilot performance. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 62, 221-227.

Lemberger, L., Dalton, B., Martz, R., Rodda, B. & Forney, R. (1976). Clinical studies of the interaction of psychopharmacologic agents with marijuana. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 281, 219-228.

Low, M., Klonoff, H. & Marcus, A. (1973) The neuropsychological basis of the marijuana experience. Canadian Medical Journal Association, 108, 157-164.

Top of page

MacAvoy, M. G. & Marks, D. F. (1975) Divided attention performance of cannabis users and non-users following cannabis and alcohol. Psychopharmacologia, 44, 147-152.

Maykut, M.O. (1984) Health Consequences of Acute and Chronic Marihuana Use. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

McBay, A.J. (1986) Drug concentrations and traffic safety. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 2, 51-59.

McGlothlin, W., Jamison, K. & Rosenblatt, S. (1970) Marijuana and the use of other drugs. Nature, 228, 1227-1228.

Manno, J. E., Kiplinger, G. F., Haine, S. E., Bennett, I. F. & Forney, R. B. (1970) Comparative effects of smoking marihuana or placebo on human motor and mental performance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 11, 808-815.

Manno, J. E., Kiplinger, G. F., Scholz, N. & Forney, R. B. (1971) The influence of alcohol and marihuana on motor and mental performance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 12, 202-211.

Marks, D. F. & MacAvoy, M. G. (1989) Divided attention performance in cannabis users and non-users following alcohol and cannabis separately and in combination. Psychopharmacology, 99, 397-401.

Mason, A.P, & McBay, A.J. (1984) Ethanol, marijuana and other drug use in 600 drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes in North Carolina 1978-1981. Journal of Forensic Science, 29, 987-1026.

Mendelson, J. (1983) Chronic effects of cannabis on human brain function and behavior. in K. O. Fehr & H. Kalant (Eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards, Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Miller, N. S., Klahr, A. L., Gold, M. S., Sweeney, K. & Corcores, J. A. (1990) The prevalence of marijuana (cannabis) use and dependence in cocaine dependence. New York State Journal of Medicine, 90, 491-492.

Milstein, S. L., MacCannell, K., Karr, G. & Clark, S. (1975) Marijuana-produced impairments in coordination. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 161, 26-31.

Moskowitz, H. (1985) Marijuana and driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 17, 323-345.

Moskowitz, H., Hulbert, S. & McGlothlin, W. H. (1976) Marijuana: Effects on simulated driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 8, 45-50.

Moskowitz, H. & McGlothlin, W. (1974) Effects of marijuana on auditory signal detection. Psychopharmacologia, 40, 137-145.

Moskowitz, H., Sharma, S. & McGlothlin, W. (1972) Effect of marijuana upon peripheral vision as a function of the information processing demands in central vision. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35, 875-882.

Top of page

Nahas, G.G. (1984) Toxicology and pharmacology. In G.G. Nahas Marihuana in Science and Medicine New York: Raven Press.

Newman, L. M., Lutz, M. P., Gould, M. H. & Domino, E. F. (1972) 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and ethyl alcohol: Evidence for cross-tolerance in the rat. Science, 175, 1022-1023.

Nichols, J. L. (1971) Drug use and highway safety: A review of the literature. DOT-HS-0.2-1-019, Washington: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Norton, R. and Colliver, J. (1988) Prevalence and patterns of combined alcohol and marijuana use. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 49, 378-380.

Pearl, J. H., Domino, E. F. & Rennick, P. (1973) Short-term effects of marijuana smoking on cognitive behavior in experienced male users. Psychopharmacologia, 31, 13-24.

Peck, R. C., Biasotti, A., Boland, P. N., Mallory, C. & Reeve, V. (1986) The Effects of marijuana and alcohol on actual driving performance. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 2, 135-154.

Peeke, S. D., Jones, R. T. & Stone, G. C. (1976) Effects of practice on marijuana-induced changes in reaction time. Psychopharmacology, 48, 159-163.

Perez-Reyes, M., Burstein, S. H., White, W. R.., McDonald, S. A. & Hicks, R. E. (1991) Antagonism of marihuana effects by indomethacin in humans. Life Sciences, 48, 507-515.

Perez-Reyes, M., Hicks, R. E., Bumberry, J., Jeffcoat, A. R. & Cook, C. E. (1988) Interaction between marihuana and ethanol: Effects on psychomotor performance. Alcoholism, 12, 268-276.

Polen, M.R., Sidney, S., Tekawa, I.S., Sadler, M. and Friedman, G.D. (1993) Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. Western Journal of Medicine, 158, 596-601.

Robbe, H. W. J. & O'Hanlon, J. F. (1993) Marijuana's effect on actual driving: Summary of a 3-year experimental program. in H.-D. Utzelmann, G. Berghaus & G. Kroj (Eds) Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety - T92 (Vol. 2), K"ln: Verlag TšV Rheinland.

Rosencrantz, H. (1983) Cannabis, marihuana and cannabinoid toxicological manifestations in man and animals. in K. O. Fehr & H. Kalant (Eds.) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Rubin, V. & Comitas, L. (1975) Ganja in Jamaica. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Top of page

Salvendy, G. & McCabe, G. P. (1975) Marihuana and human performance. Human Factors, 17, 229-235.

Siemens, A. J. (1980) Effects of cannabis in combination with ethanol and other drugs. in Petersen, R. C. (Ed.) Marijuana Research Findings: 1980. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 31. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Siemens, A. J. & Khanna, J. M. (1977) Acute metabolic interactions between ethanol and cannabis. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1, 343-348.

Simpson, H.M. (1986) Epidemiology of road accidents involving marijuana. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 2, 15-30.

Smart, R. G. (1974) Marijuana and driving risk among college students. Journal of Safety Research, 6, 155-158.

Smart, R. G. and Fejer, D. (1976) Drug use and driving risk among high school students. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 8, 33-38.

Smiley, A. (1986) Marijuana: on-road and driving simulator studies. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 2, 121-134.

Smiley, A., LeBlanc, A. E., French, I. W. and Burford, R. (1975) The combined effects of alcohol and common psychoactive drugs: 11 field studies with an instrumented automobile. in S. Israelstam & S. Lambert (Eds.) Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Smith, D.E. (1968) Acute and chronic toxicity of marijuana. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 2, 37-47.

Smith, T. C. & Kulp, R. A. (1976) Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol alone and in combination with oxymorphone, pentobarbitol and diazepam. in S. Cohen & R. G. Stillman (Eds.) The Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana. New York: Plenum Press.

Soderstrom, C.A., Triffilis, A.L., Shankar, B.S., Clark, W.E., Cowley, R.A. (1988) Marijuana and alcohol use among 1023 trauma patients. Archives of Surgery, 123, 733-737.

Stefanis, C., Dornbush, R. & Fink, M. (Eds.) (1977) Ha 5. The acute of Long-term Use. New York: Raven Press.

Sulkowski, A. & Vachon, L. (1977) Propanolol effects on acute marijuana intoxication in man. Psychopharmacology, 52, 47-53.

Sulkowski, A. Vachon, L. & Rich, E.S. (1977) Propanolol effects on acute marijuana intoxication in man. Psychopharmacology, 52, 47-53.

Sutton, L. R. (1983) The effects of alcohol, marihuana and their combination on driving ability. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 44, 438-445.

Top of page

Tart, C. (1970) Marijuana intoxication: Common experiences. Nature, 226, 701-704.

Tec, N. (1973) A clarification of the relationship between alcohol and marijuana. British Journal of Addiction, 68, 191-195.

Terhune, K.W. (1986) Problems and methods in studying drug crash effects. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 2, 1-13.

Thomas, H. (1993) Psychiatric symptoms in cannabis users. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 141-149.

Thompson, P. (1975) "Stoned" driving is unpleasant, say marijuana smokers. The Journal (Addiction Research Foundation), 4, 13.

Weckowicz, T. E., Fedora, O., Mason, J., Radstaak, D., Bay, K. S. & Yonge, K. A. (1975) Effect of marijuana on divergent and convergent production cognitive tests. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 386-398.

Weil, A. (1970) Adverse reactions to marihuana. New England Journal of Medicine, 282, 997-1000.

Williams, A.G., Peat, M.A., Crouch, D.J., Wells, J.K. and Finkle, B.S. (1985) Drugs in fatally injured young male drivers. Public Health Reports, 100, 19-25.

Yesavage, J. A., Leirer, v.-O., Denari, M. & Hollister, L. E. (1985) Carry-over effects of marijuana intoxication on aircraft pilot performance: A preliminary report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1325-1329.

Zacny, J. P. & Chait, L. D. (1991) Response to marijuana as a function of potency and breathhold duration. Psychopharmacology, 103, 223-226.

Zalcman, S., Liskow, B., Cadoret, R. & Goodwin, (1973) Marijuana and amphetamine: The question of interaction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 707-708.

Zimmerman, E.G., Yaeger, E.P., Soares, J.R., Hollister, L. and Reeve, V (1983) Measurement of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood samples from impaired motorists. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 28, 957-962.