2019 Outbreak of Polio in the Philippines
On 14 September 2019 a case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was confirmed on the island of Mindanao in the southern Philippines. The Philippine Department of Health announced an outbreak of polio in the country on 19 September 2019. Environmental samples genetically linked to this case have also been isolated in Manila and Davao City in 2019.
The Government of the Philippines, supported by partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), are undertaking detailed investigations, enhancing surveillance, strengthening routine immunization and implementing an outbreak response.
2019 Outbreak of Polio in Papua Province, Indonesia
On 12 February 2019, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) was confirmed in the Papua Province of Indonesia (Papua Province). While this Indonesian province shares a border with Papua New Guinea, this outbreak is not linked to the outbreak currently affecting Papua New Guinea.
The Indonesian Ministry of Health, supported by WHO, is undertaking contact tracing and testing as well as strengthened disease surveillance and polio vaccination of children in the Papua Province.
2018-19 Outbreak of Polio in Papua New Guinea
On 22 June 2018, the Government of Papua New Guinea notified WHO of an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1).
The Government of Papua New Guinea is working with partners, including WHO and UNICEF, to take appropriate outbreak response measures including surveillance, contact tracing, testing and vaccination.
There are a number of polio outbreaks currently occurring globally. Information about these outbreaks and the situation in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, can be found on the WHO and Global Polio Eradication Initiative websites.
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV)
On very rare occasions, if a population is seriously under-immunised, the vaccine-virus can begin circulating in the community and, over a period of some 12-18 months, can mutate and cause severe symptoms. These viruses are called circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV).
This cannot occur with the injectable polio vaccine used in Australia.
Risk of Polio spreading in Australia
Polio is very unlikely to spread in Australia because of high rates of vaccine coverage, good sanitation, and the quality and ability of the health system to respond to cases.
The Australian Government continues to closely monitor the situation.
Public Health Emergency of International Concern
In 2014, WHO declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). WHO has issued Temporary Recommendations under the International Health Regulations 2005 for affected countries to reduce the risk of the international spread of polio.
Recommendations for Australian Travellers
Travel advice for Australians is available on the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Smartraveller website.
The Australian Immunisation Handbook recommends that Australians travelling to polio-affected countries should be up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations against polio, including boosters, prior to departure.
- Australian residents planning to visit affected countries for less than 4 weeks should be up to date with their polio vaccination. For adults, this is a 3 dose primary course, with a booster within the last 10 years. For children, a 3 dose primary course with a booster at 4 years old is currently recommended. These recommended vaccines may be given before arrival in affected countries.
- Australian residents travelling to affected countries who intend to stay for longer than 4 weeks should have a documented polio booster within 4 weeks to 12 months prior to the date of departure from affected countries. The booster may be given before arrival in affected countries as long as it is given within 4 weeks to 12 months prior to leaving affected countries.
- Individuals who are already residing in affected countries for 4 weeks or longer should have a documented polio booster within 4 weeks to 12 months prior to departure from affected countries (refer to WHO’s International Travel and Health website). The booster may have been given before arrival in affected countries, as long as it has been given within 4 weeks to 12 months prior to leaving affected countries. Individuals leaving affected countries in less than 4 weeks should still receive a polio booster as this will still have benefit.
Consistent with WHO recommendations, polio-affected countries may require proof of vaccination when leaving the country.
Australian travellers should check their vaccination records and consult their general practitioner or travel doctor regarding their vaccination requirements.
Information for Health Professionals
The Australian Immunisation Handbook provides clinically-relevant information about the polio immunisation schedule in Australia.
For recommendations regarding the outbreaks of polio in the Philippines, PNG and Papua Province, refer to Polio Outbreaks 2019: Advice for Clinicians.
Australian Entry Requirements
The Department of Home Affairs website provides advice about entry requirements. Visa applicants from polio-affected countries, applying to come to Australia, may be required to provide a valid polio vaccination certificate.
There are no additional health entry requirements for Australian citizens or permanent residents as a result of the outbreak in the Philippines, PNG or Papua Province.
- For information about polio disease, refer to Polio Frequently Asked Questions.
- For information about vaccine-derived polioviruses, refer to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative website.
- For information about the status of polio in Australia, refer to Polio Surveillance.
- For technical information about the polio immunisation schedule in Australia, refer to the Australian Immunisation Handbook