Risk factors for eye disease and injury: literature review

Table 4.2 Summary of results for eye injury

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Risk factor



Group a

Summary sheet
number b

Eye protectionEye injuries (impact, blunt force, foreign bodies)Eye injury is associated with lack of eye protection, often occurs at work and is particularly prominent in young men. The use of eye protection leads to a marked decrease in eye injuries.1127
Eye protectionChemical injuryNo relevant studies found7NA
Eye protectionRadiationNo relevant studies found7NA
OccupationEye injury (impact, blunt force, foreign bodies)Eye injury is a common hazard in certain jobs, and is particularly prominent in males between 20 and 34 years. Foreign bodies in the eye are the most common work-related injury.
Regular wearing of appropriate eye protection can reduce the incidence of eye injury (see summary table 135).
OccupationChemical injuryChemical injury to the eye is the second-most common cause of eye trauma, after foreign bodies. Males are more at risk from this type of in jury than females.1137
OccupationRadiationNo relevant studies found7NA
SportImpact/blunt force injuryA large proportion of injuries occur during sporting activity, with young men being most at risk. The sports resulting in the most number of injuries usually reflect their popularity in the country in question, rather than their inherent danger, although sports using hard, small balls warrant particular caution. Eye injury is less likely to occur in established sports with compulsory and well-designed eye protection.1139
SportForeign bodiesActivities such as walking or running near roads may carry a small risk to eye health due to the potential for metallic foreign bodies to be projected from the road by passing cars.2140
SportChemical injuryNo relevant studies found7NA
SportRadiationNo relevant studies found7NA
AssaultEye injury (impact, blunt force, foreign bodies, chemicals)The type of eye injury resulting from an assault depends on the method of assault. Blunt trauma was the most common type of injury. Most assaults, particularly chemical assaults, result in serious injury or blindness. Further studies would be required to evaluate the severity and incidence of eye trauma from assault in Australia.1143
AssaultRadiationNo relevant studies found7NA
Alcohol consumptionImpact/blunt force injuryNo relevant studies found7NA
Alcohol consumptionForeign bodiesNo relevant studies found7NA
Alcohol consumptionChemical injuryNo relevant studies found7NA
Alcohol consumptionRadiationNo relevant studies found7NA
Home environmentImpact/blunt force injuryNo relevant studies found7NA
Home environmentForeign bodiesNo relevant studies found7NA
Home environmentChemical injuryNo relevant studies found7NA
Home environmentRadiationNo relevant studies found7NA

a Groups are as follows:

Group 1 — Clear association/causality
Group 2 — Possible association/causality (more research needed)
Group 3 — Lack of association/causality
Group 4 — Possible lack of association/causality (more research needed)
Group 5 — Conflicting results
Group 6 — Possible protection
Group 7 — No studies

b Summary sheets number refers to the results tables in Appendix 3.
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