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- This section provides an overview of the results of the review, based on the tables shown in Chapter 4 and Appendix 4. The strength of each statement is indicated by the group designation.
Groups are as follows (see Section 3.2 and Table 3.2 for further details):
Group 1 — Clear association/causality
Group 2 — Possible association/causality (more research needed)
Group 3 — Lack of association/causality
Group 4 — Possible lack of association/causality (more research needed)
Group 5 — Conflicting results
Group 6 — Possible protection
Group 7 — No studies
The large scope of the review meant that some complex areas were not studied in as much detail as necessary to make fully informed conclusions (eg diet and supplements). Areas where a further, more focused literature review may be helpful for the development of public health messages are discussed in Chapter 6.
For many other areas, there have been few or no primary research studies, and further studies are therefore needed to answer the relevant questions.