Thorley's model of problematic drug use also assists our understanding of drug-related harm. Thorley's model focuses on the problems related to different patterns of drug use. This model identifies the possible problems associated with dependence, regular use and intoxication and the overlap between these factors (see Diagram).
Whilst there may be some overlap between the type of use and associated harms, there are also many separate issues related to the different types of use.
It is important to remember that the majority of young people will not experience problems related to dependent use. Most of their difficulties will arise from intoxication (using at hazardous levels) or regular use (a couple of drinks each night with friends).
However, a smaller proportion of long-term excessive users will experience some dependence-related problems as they develop a tolerance to the drug and a need to use for both psychological and physical reasons.
Diagram: Thorley's model of harm relating to intoxication, regular use and dependency
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Text version of DiagramThorley's model is illustrated by three circles that overlap each other. Each circle represents dependence, regular use, and intoxication.
DependenceProblems associated with dependence:
- discomfort when refraining from use
- inability to rest
- social problems
- loss of control
Regular useContinued use over a longer period of time can result in the following:
- medical and health problems
- child neglect
- family problems
- relationship problems
- financial problems
IntoxicationThe following problems can arise from a single occasion of use:
- marital disputes
- drink driving
- legal problems