The literature on amphetamine treatments is limited in both quantity and quality. The literature is particularly hindered by a paucity of well-conducted studies among primary amphetamine users, especially outcome studies. The available evidence suggests that cognitive behavioural approaches, such as relapse prevention, and behavioural approaches, such as contingency management, are the most effective treatments for amphetamine users to date. The effectiveness of other types of intervention is not well supported. Until more research is undertaken comparing different treatment modalities in Australian settings, CBT, coupled with motivational approaches, appears to represent current best practice.