Uncomplicated intoxication may only require observation and monitoring for several hours in a subdued environment until symptoms subside (Henry, 1992; Rawson, 1999; Williams, Dratcu, Taylor, Roberts & Oyefeso, 1998). Management is predominantly supportive, with an emphasis on sedation and reduction of body temperature. Most patients with a minor elevation in core temperature do not require any specific measures, but rapid cooling measures are essential if body temperature is above 41 degrees C. Strategies to promote cooling in a community or pre-hospital environment include moving the patient to a shady, cooler environment, removal of insulating clothing, application of ice packs to neck, axillae (armpit) and groin and dousing the patient with water and fanning to promote evaporative heat loss. Emergency departments also utilise evaporative cooling techniques and cold water immersion (Roberts & Hedges, 1998; Wexler, 2002). Muscle paralysis and intubation may be necessary if external cooling measures fail.

The following sections address specific aspects of toxicity.