Definition of terms


  • AIDS - Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

  • ARV - Antiretroviral therapy

  • CPI - Consumer price index

  • DALYs - Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years

  • HIV - Human immunodeficiency virus

  • HCC - Hepatocellular carcinoma

  • HCV - Hepatitis C Virus

  • IDU - Injecting drug user

  • IQR - Inter-quartile range (25-75% interval)

  • ICER - Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio

  • IRID - Injection related injuries and disease

  • NCHECR - National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research

  • NDM - Needle dispensing machine

  • NPV - Net present value

  • NSP - Needle and syringe program

  • QALYs - Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years

  • SVM - Syringe vending machine
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Definition of terms

  • Cost-effectiveness - Efficiency of a program: estimate of costs spent or saved in relation to health outcomes averted or reduced

  • Incidence - A measure of the number of new cases of a disease in a population in a given time (usually yearly)

  • Direct cost - A cost that is directly traced to the delivery of specific goods or services

  • Discount rate - The rates used to discount future cash flows to their present value

  • Economic analysis - Economic evaluation that compares two or more alternative courses of action in terms of both their costs and consequences

  • Incremental cost - The change in cost associated with a program or intervention compared to an alternate option

  • Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio - The incremental cost of a program or intervention divided by the incremental benefit of a program or intervention compared to an alternative

  • Marginal cost - The change in the total cost when the production of an outcome of interest increases by one unit

  • Marginal return - The additional output resulting from a one unit increase in the use of a variable input, while other inputs are held constant

  • Net financial cost - The cost of financing the purchase of a program or intervention minus any costs or cost savings for the consequences of an intervention

  • Net monetary benefit - The net costs and cost-offsets of a program allowing for a government or societal willingness to pay for a unit of health gain

  • Net present value - Total present value (PV) of a time series of cash flows; it is a standard method for using the time value of money to appraise long-term projects

  • Prevalence - The proportion of individuals in a population with disease

  • Productivity gains and losses - Gains or losses of production related to sick leave, absences from work, total and permanent disability or death in participants in a program or population measured in monetary values

  • Undiscounted - Evaluations based on assumptions of all monetary terms having equal values in the future as the current value of money

  • Unit cost - Cost of a unit of production