Access to functional housing
- In 2008, 99% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households reported that they had working facilities for washing people, 94% reported working facilities for washing clothes/bedding, 94% reported working facilities for storing/preparing food and 98% reported working sewerage systems.
- This varied considerably by remoteness, with 21% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in very remote communities reporting a lack of working facilities for the storage and preparation of food.
- There was a slight reduction in the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students at or above the national minimum standard in reading between 2008 and 2011. In 2011, small declines in the gap for numeracy were also found for Years 3, 5 and 9 but an increase in the gap was seen for Year 7.
- The employment rate for Indigenous Australians increased from 44% to 54% between 2001 and 2008. The definition of 'employment' in the 2008 NATSISS included CDEP participation (6%).
- In 2008, 47% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 15 years and over smoked. This was a small but potentially important improvement from 2002, when the rate was estimated to be 51%.
- In 2009, 52% of Indigenous Australian women smoked during pregnancy, 3.7 times as high as the rate for non-Indigenous Australian pregnant women. Smoking rates did not decline by age for Indigenous mothers as they did for non-Indigenous mothers.
- In 2008, an estimated 65% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–14 years lived in households with a current daily smoker compared with 32% of non-Indigenous children.
- There has been a noticeable shift toward lower levels of physical activity. In 2004–05, 47% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 15 years and over in non-remote areas reported being 'sedentary'. This increased from 37% in 2001 and was one and a half times the rate for other Australians.
- In remote areas, 20% of Indigenous people aged 12 years and over reported no usual daily fruit intake and 15% reported no usual daily intake of vegetables. The corresponding proportions in non-remote areas were 12% and 2% respectively.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 12 years and over were twice as likely to report no usual daily fruit intake and 7 times as likely to report no daily vegetable intake as non-Indigenous Australians in this age group (ABS 2006b).Top of page
Overweight and obesity
- Rates of overweight and obesity increased between 1995 and 2004–05. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 15 years and over in non-remote areas, rates increased from 51% to 60%. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults were nearly twice as likely to be obese as non-Indigenous Australians.
Risky/high risk alcohol consumption
- In 2008, 46% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 15 years and over reported drinking at low risk levels and 35% had abstained from drinking alcohol in the 12 months prior to the survey. A further 17% reported drinking at chronic risky/high risk levels in the past 12 months, representing no significant change since 2002 (15%).
Overcrowding in housing
- Approximately 25% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples live in overcrowded households. Overcrowding rates are significantly higher in remote areas than in non-remote areas.
- Despite some improvements in literacy and numeracy, the proportion of Indigenous students achieving the reading, writing and numeracy benchmarks in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 remain below the corresponding proportions for all students.
- The unemployment rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples increased between 2001 and 2008 from 7% to 11%. Unemployment rates continue to remain higher than corresponding rates for non-Indigenous Australians.
Low income and the distribution of income
- In 2008, 49% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were in the bottom 20% of mean equivalised household incomes. The corresponding rate in 2006 was 40%.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are more likely to experience exposure to violence, child abuse and neglect, and contact with the criminal justice system (including imprisonment) than other Australians.
- Fewer Indigenous households in non-remote areas (50%) had ready access to motor vehicles (i.e., garaged or parked at or near their dwelling) compared with non-Indigenous households (85%).
- In 2008, 10% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 15 years and over reported transport/distance as the reason they did not access services. Transport/distance was a bigger issue for those living in remote areas (19%) than those living in non-remote areas (7%).