Schaeffer's modelSchaeffer outlined five distinct patterns of AOD use:
Drug use by recreational users serves different purposes than drug use by intensive and particularly compulsive users. In other words, recreational users and intensive or compulsive users use drugs for different reasons (Spooner, 1999; Shedler & Block, 1990; Stein, Newcomb & Bentler, 1987).
Recreational drug use is more about:
- being social
- having fun
- the physical sensations of the drug
- reducing a sense of alienation
- identity formation
- relieving emotional distress
- improved self-regulation (soothing your emotions)
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Diagram: Schaeffer's model - patterns of drug use
Text version of DiagramSchaeffer's model is illustrated with an inverted triangle. Starting from the top, the patterns of drug use are:
- experimental - single or short-term use
- recreational/social - controlled use in social setting
- situational - use for specific reason
- intensive - high doses - binge
- compulsive - frequent/daily doses withdrawal
Case study - Roberto and JulianRoberto and Julian are two 16-year-olds who spend most of their time together. On weekends, they like to party hard and they consume large amounts of alcohol (mainly spirits) every Saturday night. When there are no parties, they usually go to the beach to drink together. Julian usually drinks a lot more alcohol than Roberto, but for both of them, Sundays are spent recovering.
Roberto also uses a variety of substances to get him through the week. He claims that this helps him to cope with his parents and life in general. He does not see his drug or alcohol use as a problem and believes his life is under control.
Question - What are the differences in Roberto and Julian's AOD use? Which seems to have more of a problem? Why?
Question - Can Julian's alcohol use be described as purely recreational?