Australia's notifiable diseases status, 2001: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

The Australia’s notifiable diseases status 2000 report provides data and an analysis of communicable disease incidence in Australia during 2000. This section of the annual report contains a list of references used throughout the report. The full report can be viewed in 25 HTML documents and is also available in PDF format. The 2001 annual report was published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Vol 27, No 1, March 2003.

Page last updated: 08 April 2003

A print friendly PDF version is available from this Communicable Diseases Intelligence issue's table of contents.


1. Jernigan DB, Ragunathan PL, Bell BP, Brechner R, Bresnitz EA, Butler JC, et al. Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg Infect Dis2002;8:1019-1028.

2. Black S, Shinefield H, Fireman B, Lewis E, Ray P, Hansen JR. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19:187-195.

3. Brooke FJ. Australia announces new measures for imported beef products. Commun Dis Intell 2001;25:253.

4. Laver G, Garman E. The origin and control of pandemic influenza. Science 2001;293:1776-1777.

5. Hatta M, Gao P, Halfmann P, Kawaoka Y. Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses. Science 2001;293:1840-1842.

6. Ashbolt R, Givney R, Gregory J, Hall G, Hundy R, Kirk M, et al. Enhancing foodborne disease surveillance across Australia in 2001: the OzFoodNet Working Group. Commun Dis Intell 2001;26:375-406.

7. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research. Australian Hepatitis C Surveillance Strategy. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney; 1999.

8. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research. Estimates and projections of the hepatitis C virus epidemic in Australia 2002. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney; 2002.

9. Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Forbes AB, Fairley CK. A randomized, blinded, controlled trial investigating the gastrointestinal health effects of drinking water quality. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109:773-778.

10. Australia New Zealand Food Authority. Food safety standards, costs and benefits. Canberra; 1999.

11. Tauxe RV. Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge. Emerg Infect Dis 1997;3:425-434.

12. Cox N, Hinkle R. Infant botulism. Am Fam Physician 2002;65:1388-1392.

13. McMaster P, Piper S, Schell D, Gillis J, Chong A. A taste of honey. J Paediatr Child Health2000;36:596-597.

14. Wheeler JG, Sethi D, Cowden JM, Wall PG, Rodrigues LC, Tompkins DS, et al. Study of infectious intestinal disease in England: rates in the community, presenting to general practice, and reported to national surveillance. BMJ 1999;318:1046-1050.

15. Allos BM. Campylobacter jejuni infections: update on emerging issues and trends. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:1201-1206.

16. Chin J ed. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual 17th edition. Washington: American Public Health Association, 2000.

17. Clark DP. New insights into human cryptosporidiosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:554-563.

18. Protracted outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with swimming pool use - Ohio and Nebraska, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001;50:406-410.

19. Harper CM, Cowell NA, Adams BC, Langley AJ, Wohlsen TD. Outbreak of Cryptosporidium linked to drinking unpasteurised milk. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:449-450.

20. Conaty S, Bird P, Bell G, Kraa E, Grohmann G, McAnulty JM. Hepatitis A in New South Wales, Australia, from consumption of oysters: the first reported outbreak. Epidemiol Infect 2000;124:121-130.

21. Amin J, Gilbert GL, Escott RG, Heath TC, Burgess MA. Hepatitis A epidemiology in Australia: national seroprevalence and notifications. Med J Aust2001;174:338-341.

22. Schlech WF 3rd. Foodborne listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:770-775.

23. Kirk M, Prasopa-Plaizier N, Dalton C, Unicomb L, Gregory J. The epidemiology of listeriosis in Australia. In: Listeria Risk Assessment and Management Strategy. Canberra: Food Standards Australia New Zealand; 2002.

24. Bull AL, Crerar SK, Beers MY. Australia's imported food program - a valuable source of information on micro-organisms in foods. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:28-32.
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25. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, et al. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:607-625.

26. National Enteric Pathogen Surveillance Scheme. Human annual report, 2001. Melbourne: Microbiological Diagnostic Unit, University of Melbourne; 2002.

27. ProMed-Mail. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 - Australia, Europe. ProMed Mail ( 2001: Archive Number 20010822. 1980.

28. Hohmann EL. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:263-269.

29. ProMed-Mail. Salmonella Stanley, Peanuts - Australia - recall. ProMed Mail ( 2001:Archive Number 20010911. 2189.

30. Stafford RJ, McCall BJ, Neill AS, Leon DS, Dorricott GJ, Towner CD, et al. A statewide outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans phage type 32 infection in Queensland. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:568-573.

31. Armstrong P. Considerations around an increase of Salmonella Mgulani notifications in the Top End. Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin 2002;9:8-10.

32. Lesjak M, Delpech V, Ferson M, Morgan K, Paraskevopoulos P, McAnulty J. A Salmonella Mgulani cluster in New South Wales. Commun Dis Intell 2000;24:304-305.

33. Lightfoot D. Shigella. In: Hocking AD, Arnold G, Jenson I, Newton K, Sutherland P, editors. Foodborne microorganisms of public health significance. Sydney: Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology Inc. NSW Branch, Food Microbiology Group; 1997:467-472.

34. Givney R, Darzenos J, Davos D. Shigella at a wake in Adelaide, June 1998. Commun Dis Intell 1998;22:297.

35. McCall B, Stafford R, Cherian S, Heel K, Smith H, Corones N, et al. An outbreak of multi-resistant Shigella sonnei in a long-stay geriatric nursing centre. Commun Dis Intell 2000;24:272-275.

36. O'Sullivan B, Delpech V, Pontivivo G, Karagiannis T, Marriott D, Harkness J, et al. Shigellosis linked to sex venues, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:862-864.

37. Cummings KC, Mohle-Boetani JC, Werner SB, Vugia DJ. Population-based trends in pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome in California, 1994-1999: substantial underreporting and public health implications. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:941-948.

38. Elliott EJ, Robins-Browne RM, O'Loughlin EV, Bennett-Wood V, Bourke J, Henning P, et al. Nationwide study of haemolytic uraemic syndrome: clinical, microbiological, and epidemiological features. Arch Dis Child 2001;85:125-131.

39. Grattan-Smith PJ, O'Regan WJ, Ellis PS, O'Flaherty SJ, McIntyre PB, Barnes CJ. Rabies. A second Australian case with a long incubation period. Med J Aust 1992;156:651-654.

40. Tapsall J. Annual report of the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:242-247.

41. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research. HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia annual surveillance report 2001. Sydney: National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales; 2001. Report No: 1442-8784.

42. Eng T, Butler W. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmissible diseases. Washington, D. C. : National Academy Press; 1997.

43. Chlamydia strategy for Victoria (2001-2004). Melbourne: Victorian Government Department of Health Services; 2001. Report No: 0330700.

44. Ballard R. Calymmatobacterium granulomatis (donovanosis, granuloma inguinale). In: Mandell G, Bennett J, Dolin R, editors. Principles Practice of Infectious Diseases. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1995:2210-2213.

45. Bowden F, Savage J. Is the eradication of donovanosis possible in Australia? Aust N Z J Public Health1998;22:7-8.

46. Mein JK, Anstey NM, Bowden FJ. Missing the diagnosis of donovanosis in northern Australia. Med J Aust 1999;170:48.

47. O'Farrell N. Donovanosis: an update. Int J STD AIDS 2001;12:423-427.

48. Miller P. Donovanosis control or eradication? A situational review of donovanosis in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; 2001.

49. Queensland Department of Health. 1997-2001 notifiable diseases report: Communicable Diseases Unit, Queensland Department of Health; 2001.
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50. Andrews R, O'Grady K, Tallis G. Surveillance of notifiable infectious diseases in Victoria 2001. Melbourne: Communicable Diseases Section, Victorian Department of Human Services; 2002.

51. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme. Annual report of the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:242-247.

52. Surveillance report. Victorian Infectious Diseases Bulletin 2002;5:12.

53. McIntyre P, Gidding H, Gilmour R, Lawrence G, Hull B, Horby P, et al. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Australia, 1999-2000. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:64-66.

54. National Health and Medical Research Council. The Australian Immunisation Handbook, 7th ed. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 2000.

55. Torzillo PJ, Gratten M. Conjugate pneumococcal vaccines for Aboriginal children in Australia. Med J Aust 2000;173:S51-S53.

56. Roche P, Spencer J, Hampson A. Annual report of the National Influenza Surveillance Scheme, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:204-213.

57. Measles: progress towards global control and regional elimination 1998-1999. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1999;74:429-440.

58. Gay NJ. Eliminating measles - no quick fix. Bull World Health Organ 2000;78:949.

59. Davidson N, Andrews R, Riddell M, Leydon J, Lynch P. A measles outbreak among young adults in Victoria, February, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:273-278.

60. Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory. Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, annual report, 2001. Melbourne; 2002.

61. Hewlett EL. Bordetella species. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone: 1995:2078-2084.

62. Roche P, Krause V. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Australia, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26: 505-519.

63. Hills SL, Hanna JN, Murphy D. Invasive pneumococcal disease in North Queensland, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:520-524.

64. Thorley BR, Brussen KA, Stambos V, Yuen LKW, Kelly HA. Annual report of the Australian National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory and summary of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:419-427.

65. Boughton CR. Australian arboviruses of medical importance: The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners; 1996.

66. Mylonas AD, Brown AM, Carthew TL, McGrath B, Purdie DM, Pandeya N, et al. Natural history of Ross River virus-induced epidemic polyarthritis. Med J Aust 2002;177:356-360.

67. Merianos A, Farland AM, Patel M, Currie B, Whelan P, Dentith H, et al. A concurrent outbreak of Barmah Forest and Ross River virus disease in Nhulunbuy, Northern Territory. Commun Dis Intell 1992;16:110-111.

68. Selden SM, Cameron SA. Changing epidemiology of Ross River virus disease in South Australia. Med J Aust 1996;165:313-317.

69. Mackenzie JS, Chua KB, Daniels PW, Eaton BT, Field HE, Hall RA, et al. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7 Suppl 3:497-504.

70. Tong S, Bi P, Hayes J, Donald K, Mackenzie J. Geographic variation of notified Ross River virus infections in Queensland, Australia, 1985-1996. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001;65:171-176.

71. Amin J, Hueston L, Dwyer DE, Capon A. Ross River virus infection in the north-west outskirts of the Sydney basin. Commun Dis Intell 1998;22:101-102.

72. Ryan PA, Do KA, Kay BH. Spatial and temporal analysis of Ross River virus disease patterns at Maroochy Shire, Australia: association between human morbidity and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance. J Med Entomol 1999;36:515-521.

73. Doggett S, Russell R, Clancy J, Haniotis J, Cloonan MJ. Barmah Forest virus epidemic on the south coast of New South Wales, Australia, 1994-1995. J Med Entomol 1999;36:861-868.

74. Hii J, Dyke T, Dagoro H, Sanders R. Health impact assessments of malaria and Ross River virus infection in the Southern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea. P N G Med J 1997;40:14-25.
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75. Mackenzie JS, Broom AK, Hall RA, Johansen CA, Lindsay MD, Phillips DA, et al. Arboviruses in the Australian region, 1990 to 1998. Commun Dis Intell 1998;22:93-100.

76. Johansen CA, van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Zborowski P, Nisbet DJ, Paru R, et al. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2000;62:631-638.

77. Crump JA, Murdoch DR, Baker MG. Emerging infectious diseases in an island ecosystem: the New Zealand perspective. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:767-772.

78. Spencer JD, Azoulas J, Buick TD, Daniels PW, Doggett SL, Hapgood GD, et al. Murray Valley encephalitis virus surveillance and control initiatives in Australia. Commun Dis Intell 2001;25:33-48.

79. Mackenzie JS, Smith DW, Broom AK, Bucens MR. Australian encephalitis in Western Australia, 1978-1991. Med J Aust 1993;158:591-595.

80. Cordova SP, Smith DW, Broom AK, Lindsay MD, Dowse GK, Beers MY. Murray Valley encephalitis in Western Australia in 2000, with evidence of southerly spread. Commun Dis Intell 2000;24:368-372.

81. Brown A, Krause V. Central Australian MVE update, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2001;25:49.

82. Brown A, Bolisetti S, Whelan P, Smith D, Wheaton G. Reappearance of human cases due to Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus in Central Australia after an absence of 26 years. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:39-44.

83. Hall RA, Broom AK, Smith DW, Mackenzie JS. The ecology and epidemiology of Kunjin virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002;267:253-269.

84. ProMed-Mail. Viral enceph. , imported - Germany ex Australia (03). 2001:Archive Number 20010524. 1007.

85. Hanna JN, Ritchie SA, Phillips DA, Shield J, Bailey MC, Mackenzie JS, et al. An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the Torres Strait, Australia, 1995. Med J Aust 1996;165:256-260.

86. Hanna JN, Ritchie SA, Phillips DA, Lee JM, Hills SL, van den Hurk AF, et al. Japanese encephalitis in north Queensland, Australia, 1998. Med J Aust 1999;170:533-536.

87. Mackenzie JS, Ritchie SA. CSIRO shows macropods unlikely hosts for JE. Aust Vet J 2001;79:168.

88. Mackenzie JS, Johansen CA, Ritchie SA, van den Hurk AF, Hall RA. Japanese encephalitis as an emerging virus: the emergence and spread of Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002;267:49-73.

89. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, editors. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone: 1995.

90. Kurane I, Takasaki T. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever: challenges of controlling an enemy still at large. Rev Med Virol 2001;11:301-311.

91. Mackenzie JS, la Brooy JT, Hueston L, Cunningham AL. Dengue in Australia. J Med Microbiol 1996;45:159-161.

92. Hills S, Piispanen J, Humphreys J, Foley P. A focal, rapidly-controlled outbreak of dengue fever in two suburbs in Townsville, North Queensland, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:596-600.

93. World Health Organization. Strengthening implementation of the global strategy for dengue fever/ dengue hemorrhagic fever prevention and control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999 October. Available from: Accessed 30 January 2003.

94. Cousins DV, Roberts JL. Australia's campaign to eradicate bovine tuberculosis: the battle for freedom and beyond. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2001;81:5-15.

95. Williams DT, Daniels PW, Lunt RA, Wang LF, Newberry KM, Mackenzie JS. Experimental infections of pigs with Japanese encephalitis virus and closely related Australian flaviviruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001;65:379-387.

96. Smythe L, Dohnt M, Symonds M, Barnett L, Moore M, Brookes D, et al. Review of leptospirosis notifications in Queensland and Australia: January 1998 - June 1999. Commun Dis Intell 2000;24:153-157.

97. Mancel E, Merien F, Present L, Salino D, Angibaud G, Perolat P. Clinical aspects of ocular leptospirosis in New Caledonia (South Pacific). Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1999;27:380-386.

98. Levett PN. Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001; 14:296-326.

99. McCall BJ, Epstein JH, Neill AS, Heel K, Field H, Barrett J, et al. Potential exposure to Australian Bat lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999. Emerg Infect Dis 2000;6:259-264.
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100. New South Wales Health Department. Anthrax. NSW Public Health Bulletin 2001:12.

101. Hall R. Notifiable disease surveillance, 1917 to 1991. Commun Dis Intell 1993;17:226-236.

102. Lin M, Roche P, Spencer J, Milton A, Wright P, Witteveen D, et al. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2000. Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:118-203.

103. Li J, O'Brien ED, Guest C. A review of national legionellosis surveillance in Australia, 1991 to 2000. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:462-470.

104. Leprosy - global situation. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2002;77:1-8.

105. Herf C, Nichols J, Fruh S, Holloway B, Anderson CU. Meningococcal disease recognition, treatment and prevention. Nurse Pract 1998;23:33-36.

106. World Health Organization. Meningococcal disease. In: World Health Organization report on global surveillance of epidemic-prone infectious diseases. Geneva; 2000.

107. Tapsall J. Annual report of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:407-418.

108. Miller M, Lin M, Spencer J. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2001. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26: 525-536.

109. Roche P, Halliday L, O'Brien E, Spencer J. The Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme, 1991 to 2000. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:323-374.

110. Roche P, Blumer C, Spencer J. Surveillance of viral pathogens in Australia: Varicella-zoster virus. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:576-580.

111. Armstrong P. Rotaviral gastroenteritis in the NT: a description of the epidemiology 1995-2001 and future directions for research. Northern Territory Disease Control Bulletin 2001;8:1-5.

112. Kirkwood C, Bogdanovic-Sakran N, Clark R, Masendycz P, Bishop R, Barnes G. Report of the National Rotavirus Surveillance Program, 2001/002. Commun Dis Intell 2002;26:537-540.

113. Department of Health and Aged Care. Joint Expert Technical Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance. The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals: antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals and humans. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care and the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry-Australia; 1999.

This article was published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 1, March 2003.

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