Australia's notifiable diseases status, 2001: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System

The Australia’s notifiable diseases status 2000 report provides data and an analysis of communicable disease incidence in Australia during 2000. This section of the annual report contains the results, including Table 4a and 4b. The full report can be viewed in 25 HTML documents and is also available in PDF format. The 2001 annual report was published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Vol 27, No 1, March 2003.

Page last updated: 08 April 2003

A print friendly PDF version is available from this Communicable Diseases Intelligence issue's table of contents.


Results, continued

Table 4a. Notifications and notification rates of communicable diseases, Australia, 1997 to 2001, by state or territory (rate per 100,000 population)*

Disease
Notifications Rate per 100,000 population
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (incident)
269
265
303
395
424
1.5
1.4
1.6
2.1
2.2
Hepatitis B (unspecified) †‡
6,542
6,562
7,164
7,908
8,424
35.7
35.4
38.2
41.7
43.7
Hepatitis C (incident)
154
350
396
441
600
1.0
2.3
2.6
2.9
3.8
Hepatitis C (unspecified) †‡§
17,290
18,075
18,655
19,569
19,586
93.4
96.5
98.4
102.2
100.5
Hepatitis D
-
-
19
27
21
-
-
0.1
0.2
0.1
Hepatitis (NEC)
6
4
0
1
2
<0.1
<0.1
0.0
<0.1
<0.1
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism
0
1
0
2
2
0.0
<0.1
0.0
<0.1
<0.1
Campylobacteriosis ||
11,752
13,433
12,657
13,595
16,124
95.9
108.4
100.8
107.1
125.2
Cryptosporidiosis
-
-
-
-
1,615
-
-
-
-
8.3
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
-
-
23
15
3
-
-
0.1
0.1
<0.1
Hepatitis A
3,044
2,697
1,554
812
530
16.4
13.3
8.2
4.2
2.7
Hepatitis E
-
-
9
10
10
-
-
0.1
0.1
0.1
Listeriosis
73
55
64
67
62
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
Salmonellosis
7,054
7,613
7,147
6,151
7,045
38.1
40.7
37.7
32.1
36.2
Shigellosis
795
599
547
487
562
6.5
4.8
4.4
3.8
2.9
SLTEC,VTEC
-
-
47
33
49
-
-
0.3
0.2
0.3
Typhoid
79
60
68
58
84
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.4
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera
2
4
3
1
4
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Plague
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Rabies
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Viral haemorrhagic fever
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Yellow fever
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Sexually transmissible diseases
Chlamydial infection
9,239
10,927
14,045
16,866
20,026
75.4
88.2
74.1
88.0
102.8
Donovanosis
49
31
17
12
42
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.2
Gonococcal infection **
4,684
5,469
5,644
5,686
6,158
25.3
29.2
29.8
29.7
31.6
Syphilis ††
1,296
1,683
1,844
1,755
1,421
7.0
9.0
9.7
9.2
7.3
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria
0
0
0
0
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
<0.1
Haemophilus influenzae type b
51
35
40
28
26
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
Laboratory-confirmed influenza
-
-
-
-
1,286
-
-
-
-
6.6
Measles
838
288
238
107
141
4.5
1.5
1.3
0.6
0.7
Mumps
191
182
172
212
114
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.4
0.6
Pertussis
10,825
5,791
4,417
5,942
9,515
58.4
30.9
23.3
31.0
48.8
Invasive pneumococcal disease
-
-
-
-
1,681
-
-
-
-
8.6
Poliomyelitis
0
0
0
0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Rubella ‡‡
1,387
753
377
322
263
7.5
4.0
2.0
1.7
1.3
Tetanus
7
8
2
6
3
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC)
19
88
62
69
36
0.1
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.2
Barmah Forest virus infection
691
529
638
634
1,141
3.7
2.8
3.4
3.3
5.9
Dengue
174
579
132
215
176
0.9
3.1
0.7
1.1
0.9
Japanese encephalitis
-
-
-
-
0
-
-
-
-
0.0
Kunjin virus infection
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
<0.1
Malaria
749
660
732
951
712
4.0
3.5
3.9
5.0
3.7
Murray Valley encephalitis
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
<0.1
Ross River virus infection
6,596
3,151
4,416
4,200
3,219
35.6
16.8
23.3
21.9
16.5
Zoonoses
Anthrax
-
-
-
-
0
-
-
-
-
0.0
Australian bat lyssavirus
-
-
-
-
0
-
-
-
-
0.0
Brucellosis
39
45
52
27
19
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.1
Leptospirosis
114
202
323
243
245
0.6
1.1
1.7
1.3
1.3
Ornithosis
35
64
84
100
131
0.4
0.7
0.9
1.1
0.7
Lyssavirus (unspecified)
-
-
-
-
0
-
-
-
-
0.0
Q fever
545
560
515
573
696
2.9
3.0
2.7
3.0
3.6
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis
157
262
249
472
307
0.8
1.4
1.3
2.5
1.6
Leprosy
12
3
6
4
5
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
Invasive meningococcal infection
494
480
591
621
677
2.7
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.5
Tuberculosis
989
960
1,143
1,024
989
5.3
5.1
6.0
5.3
5.1
Total
86,241
82,468
84,395
89,641
104,187
 
 
 
 
 

* Analysis by date of onset, except for hepatitis B and hepatitis C unspecified, where analysis is by report date. Date of onset is a composite of three components: (i) the true onset date from a clinician, if available, (ii) the date the laboratory test was ordered, or (iii) the date reported to NNDSS.
† Unspecified hepatitis includes cases with hepatitis in whom the duration of illness cannot be determined.
‡ The analysis was performed by report date.
Includes incident hepatitis C in the Northern Territory and Queensland.
|| Notified as 'foodborne disease' or 'gastroenteritis in an institution' in New South Wales.
Infections with Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin) producing E. coli. (SLTEC/VTEC).
** Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia: includes gonococcal neonatal ophthalmia.
†† Includes congenital syphilis.
‡‡ Includes congenital rubella.
NEC Not elsewhere classified.
- Elsewhere classified.

Top of page
Table 4b. Years from which diseases became notifiable to NNDSS in different jurisdictions in Australia*

Disease
Year in which data first sent to Commonwealth Period of national reporting Exceptions to national reporting
ACT NSW NT Qld SA Tas Vic WA
Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis B (incident)
1995
1993
1993
1991
1993
1993
1993
1996
1995 to present
ACT did not report 1994; WA did not report 1994-1995
Hepatitis B (unspecified)
1991
1991
NN
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
NT does not report
Hepatitis C (incident)
1995
1993
-
-
1993
1995
1997
1997
1993 to present
All jurisdictions except Qld and NT
Hepatitis C (unspecified)
1991
1991
1991
1991
1994
1991
1991
1993
1995 to present
Includes reports of incident hepatitis C, 1991 to 1994
Hepatitis D
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
2001
1999 to present
WA did not report 1991-2000
Hepatitis (NEC)
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
2001
1991 to present
WA did not report 1991-2000
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism
1992
1998
1998
1998
1993
1992
1992
2001
1992 to present
State reporting started as shown
Campylobacteriosis
1991
NN
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
NSW does not report
Cryptosporidiosis
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999 to present
Hepatitis A
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Hepatitis E
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
2001
1999 to present
WA did not report 1991-2000
Listeriosis
1991
1991
1994
1991
1992
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
SA did not report 1991 NT did not report 1991-1993
Salmonellosis (NEC)
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Shigellosis
1991
2001
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
NSW did not report 1991-2000
SLTEC, VTEC
1999
1999
1999
2001
1999
1999
1999
2001
1999 to present
Qld and WA did not report 1991-2000
Typhoid1
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Plague
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Rabies
1993
1997
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Viral haemorrhagic fever
1993
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Yellow fever
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Sexually transmissible diseases
Chlamydial infection
1993
1991
1991
1991
1993
1991
1991
1994
1994 to present
NSW did not report 1994 - 1998
Donovanosis
1991
2002
1991
1991
2002
1993
1991
1991
1991 to present
NSW   and SA did not report 1991-2001 Tasmania did not report 1991-1992
Gonococcal infection2
1991
1993
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Syphilis (includes congenital syphilis)
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Haemophilus influenzae type b
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1994
1991 to present
WA did not report 1991-1993
Laboratory-confirmed influenza
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Measles
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Mumps
1992
1992
1995
1997
1994
1995
1992
1994
1995 to present
Qld did not report (1995-1996 & 1999-2000)
Pertussis
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Invasive pneumococcal disease
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Poliomyelitis
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Rubella (includes congenital rubella)
1991
1991
1993
1991
1993
1995
1992
1994
1993 to present
Tasmania did not report 1993-1994
Tetanus
1991
1991
1991
1994
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Qld did not report 1991-1993
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC)3
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Includes JE, MVE and Kunjin   1991-2000
Barmah Forest virus infection
1995
1995
1997
1995
1995
1995
1995
1996
1995 to present
Dengue
1993
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
ACT did not report 1991-1992
Japanese encephalitis
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Kunjin virus infection
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Reported under MVE in ACT
Malaria
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Murray Valley encephalitis
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Combined with Kunjin in ACT
Ross River virus infection
1993
1993
1991
1991
1993
1993
1991
1993
1993 to present
Zoonoses
Anthrax
2001
2001
2001
2001
2002
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Australian bat lyssavirus
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Brucellosis
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Leptospirosis
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Ornithosis
1991
2001
1991
1992
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
NSW did not report 1991-2000 Qld did not report 1997-2001
Lyssaviruses (unspecified)
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001
2001 to present
Q fever
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Leprosy
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Invasive meningococcal infection
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present
Tuberculosis
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991 to present

* Data from NNDSS annual reports from 1991. First full year of reporting to Commonwealth is shown. Some diseases may have been notifiable to State or Territory Health Departments before the dates shown here.
1. Includes paratyphoid in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria.
2. Includes neonatal ophthalmia in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, and Victoria.
3. Before 1997, includes Ross River virus, dengue and Barmah Forest virus infection.
NN Not notifiable in 2001


The number of notifications in 2001 was an increase of 16 per cent on notifications in 2000 (89,740) and the largest number of reports received in any year since the NNDSS commenced in 1991 (Figure 2).

Top of pageFigure 2. Trends in notifications to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australia, 1991 to 2001

Figure 2. Trends in notifications to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australia, 1991 to 2001

In part the increase in total notifications to NNDSS in 2001 was due to changes in the number of diseases reported. In 2001, nine new diseases were added to the NNDSS and four diseases were removed. The new diseases were cryptosporidiosis, laboratory-confirmed influenza, invasive pneumococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis (JE), Kunjin virus infection, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) infection, anthrax, Australian bat lyssavirus and other lyssaviruses [not elsewhere classified (NEC)]. While there were no reports for four of these diseases, in 2001 there were 1,615 cases of cryptosporidiosis notified, 1,286 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza, 1,681 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease, four cases of Kunjin and six cases of MVE. The four diseases removed from the NNDSS schedule in 2001 were yersiniosis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum and hydatid disease, which together accounted for only 100 notifications in 2000.

In 2001, bloodborne virus infections remained the most frequently notified disease (29,057 reports, 27.9% of total), followed by sexually transmitted infections (27,647, 26.5%), gastrointestinal diseases (26,086, 25%), vaccine preventable diseases (13,030, 12.5%), vectorborne diseases (5,294, 5.1%), other bacterial infections (1,978, 1.9%), zoonotic infections (1,091, 1%) and four cases of quarantinable diseases (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Notifications to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australia, 2001, by disease category

Figure 3. Notifications to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australia, 2001, by disease categoryTop of page

The major changes in communicable disease notifications in 2001 are shown in Figure 4, as the ratio of notifications in 2001 compared to the mean number of notifications for the previous five years. There were increases in the number of notifications of incident hepatitis C, chlamydial infection, pertussis, Barmah Forest virus (BF) infection and ornithosis and invasive meningococcal disease. There were decreases in the number of notifications of hepatitis A, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection, measles, rubella, Ross River virus (RR) infection and brucellosis.

Figure 4. Selected diseases from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, comparison of total notifications for 2001 with previous five year means

Figure 4. Selected diseases from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, comparison of total notifications for 2001 with previous five year means

In the financial year 2000-01, there were 89,318 hospital separations in Australian hospitals with a primary diagnosis of infectious diseases (International Classification of Diseases, version 10, Australian Modification (ICD10-AM) codes A01-B99, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). This represents 1.5 per cent of all hospital separations in that period. A further 61,035 separations were recorded with a principal diagnosis of influenza or pneumonia (ICD10-AM J10-J18).


This article was published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 1, March 2003.

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