Multilevel linear regression modelling was applied to identify the factors affecting ED LOS taking into account the correlation between patients’ presentations at the same hospital in the same calendar year. Our analysis examined the available data on ED patients’ demographics (i.e., age and gender) and information related to ED presentation characteristics (i.e., triage category, and ED mode of separation). Data extracted from the LIS provided pathology test information related to ED presentations, such as number of tests, number of pathology departments involved, order type (paper, EMR, or both), and laboratory TAT. The distribution of ED length of stay was found to be skewed and, therefore, a logarithmic transformation was applied. Model building was performed using StataCorp Stata version 12 software.49 The following data include only ED presentations that met the inclusion criteria described previously.

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